Mobile Networks and Applications

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 1068–1079 | Cite as

Design in Power-Domain NOMA: Eavesdropping Suppression in the Two-User Relay Network with Compensation for the Relay User

  • Datong Xu
  • Pinyi RenEmail author
  • Qinghe Du
  • Li Sun
  • Yichen Wang


Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is becoming important in 5G, therefore, it is widely researched. Note that the users served in NOMA are often paired to prevent excessive interference. However, if the channel condition of direct downlink from the service node to one user is serious, the node may require the other user with better channel condition to relay this user’s signals, especially when the pure relay is difficult to deploy. This relay transmission is helpful for NOMA communication, but two problems should be considered: (i) how to persuade the relay user (i.e., the user with better channel condition) to expend extra resources for relay; (ii) how to suppress eavesdropping in the relay transmission, especially for the signals of indirect communication user (i.e., the user with worse channel condition). To solve these problems, we propose a novel signal-level scheme. In this scheme, on one hand, the node increases the spectral efficiency of relay user, and does the wireless power transfer to make the relay user supplement his/her energy by energy harvesting. On the other hand, a signal transformation method is designed to deal with each signal of indirect communication user. This transformation hides privacy information of indirect communication user, but does not disrupt the relay transmission. Utilizing the proposed scheme, the above problems are effectively solved by the compensation for the relay user and the signal protection for the indirect communication user.


Non-orthogonal multiple access Spectral efficiency improvement Wireless power transfer Eavesdropping suppression Signal transformation 



The research reported in this paper is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the Grant No. 61461136001, the National Science and Technology Major Project of China under Grant No. 2016ZX03001012-004, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.


  1. 1.
    Andrews JG et al (2014) What will 5G be?. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 32(6):1065–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    I CL et al (2016) New paradigm of 5G wireless internet. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 34(3):474–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dai L et al (2015) Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G: solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends. IEEE Commun Mag 53(9):74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ding Z et al (2017) Application of non-orthogonal multiple access in LTE and 5G networks. IEEE Commun Mag 55(2):185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luo FL, Zhang C (2016) Signal processing for 5G: algorithms and implementations. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ding Z, Schober R, Poor HV (2016) A general MIMO framework for NOMA downlink and uplink transmission based on signal alignment. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 15(6):4438–4454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Razavi R, Imari MA, Imran MA, Hoshyar R, Chen D (2012) On receiver design for uplink low density signature OFDM (LDS-OFDM). IEEE Trans Commun 60(11):3499–3508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nikopour H, Baligh H (2013) Sparse code multiple access. In: IEEE international symposium on personal, indoor and mobile radio communications (PIMRC), pp 332–336Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yuan Z, Yu G, Li W (2015) Multi-user shared access for 5G. Telecommun Network Technology 5 (5):28–30Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen S et al (2017) Pattern division multiple access-a novel non-orthogonal multiple access for fifth-generation radio networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 66(4):3185–3196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huang J et al (2014) Scalable video broadcasting using bit division multiplexing. IEEE Trans Broadcast 60 (4):701–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kusume K, Bauch G, Utschick W (2012) IDMA Vs. CDMA: analysis and comparison of two multiple access schemes. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun 11(1):78–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fang D, Huang YC, Ding Z, Geraci G, Shieh SL, Claussen H (2016) Lattice partition multiple access: a new method of downlink non-orthogonal multiuser transmissions. arXiv:1604.05169
  14. 14.
    Ding Z, Adachi F, Poor HV (2016) The application of MIMO to non-orthogonal multiple access. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun 15(1):537–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shin W et al (2017) Coordinated beamforming for multi-cell MIMO-NOMA. IEEE Commun Lett 21(1):84–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Han W et al (2016) Orthogonal power division multiple access: a green communication perspective. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 34(12):3828–3842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu Y, Ding Z, Elkashlan M, Poor HV (2016) Cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 34(4):938–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lei L, Yuan D, Ho CK, Sun S (2016) Power and channel allocation for non-orthogonal multiple access in 5G systems: tractability and computation. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun 15(12):8580–8594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xu QC, Su Z, Guo S (2016) A game theoretical incentive scheme for relay selection services in mobile social networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 65(8):6692–6702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Su Z, Qi QF, Xu QC, Guo S, Wang XW (2017) Incentive scheme for cyber physical social systems based on user behaviors. appear to IEEE Trans. Emerging Topics in ComputingGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sun RJ, Wang Y, Wang XS, Zhang Y (2016) Transceiver design for cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access systems with wireless energy transfer. IET Commun 10(15):1947–1955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jiang X et al (2016) Secrecy performance of wirelessly powered wiretap channels. IEEE Trans Commun 64 (9):3858–3871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nguyen VD, Duong TQ, Tuan HD, Shin OS, Poor HV (2017) Spectral and energy efficiencies in full-duplex wireless information and power transfer. IEEE Trans Commun 65(5):2220–2233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Di X, Xiong K, Fan P, Yang HC (2017) Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer in cooperative relay networks with rateless codes. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 66(4):2981–2996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xu DT, Ren PY, Du QH, Sun L, Wang YC (2017) Design for NOMA: combat eavesdropping and improve spectral efficiency in the two-user relay network. In: Accepted by IEEE global communications conference (IEEE GLOBECOM 2017)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lv L, Chen J, Ni Q, Ding Z (2017) Design of cooperative non-orthogonal multicast cognitive multiple access for 5G systems: user scheduling and performance analysis. IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun 65(6):2641–2656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Do NT et al (2017) A BNBF user selection scheme for NOMA-based cooperative relaying systems with SWIPT. IEEE Commun Lett 21(3):664–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sun H, Wang Q, Hu RQ, Yi Qian (2017) Outage probability study in a NOMA relay system. In: IEEE wireless communications and networking conference (WCNC), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liang Z, Chen X, Huang J (2016) Non-orthogonal multiple access with buffer-aided cooperative relaying. In: IEEE international conference on computer and communications (ICCC), pp 1535–1539Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gendia AH, Elsabrouty M, Emran AA (2017) Cooperative multi-relay non-orthogonal multiple access for downlink transmission in 5G communication systems. Wireless Days :89–94Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mukherjee A, Fakoorian SAA, Huang J, Swindlehurst AL (2014) Principles of physical layer security in multiuser wireless networks: a survey. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 16(3):1550–1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bloch M, Barros J (2011) Physical-layer security: from information theory to security engineering. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thai CDT, Lee J, Quek TQS (2016) Physical-layer secret key generation with colluding untrusted relays. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 15(2):1517–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang J, Marshall A, Woods R, Duong TQ (2016) Efficient key generation by exploiting randomness from channel responses of individual OFDM subcarriers. IEEE Trans Commun 64(6):2578–2588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wang X, Zhang Z, Long K (2016) Secure beamforming for multiple antenna amplify-and-forward relay networks. IEEE Trans Signal Process 64(6):1477–1492MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zou YL, Wang XB, Shen WM (2013) Optimal relay selection for physical-layer security in cooperative wireless networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 31(10):2099–2111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Li Q et al (2015) Robust cooperative beamforming and artificial noise design for physical-layer secrecy in AF multi-antenna multi-relay networks. IEEE Trans Signal Process 63(1):206–220MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hu J et al (2017) Artificial-noise-aided secure transmission scheme with limited training and feedback overhead. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 16(1):193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu Y et al (2017) Enhancing the physical layer security of non-orthogonal multiple access in large-scale networks. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 16(3):1656–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kalamkar SS, Banerjee A (2017) Secure communication via a wireless energy harvesting untrusted relay. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 66(3):2199–2213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang D, Bai B, Chen W, Han Z (2016) Secure green communication via untrusted two-way relaying: a physical layer approach. IEEE Trans Commun 64(5):1861–1874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wang W, Teh KC, Li KH (2016) Relay selection for secure successive AF relaying networks with untrusted nodes. IEEE Trans Inf Forensics Secur 11(11):2466–2476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Xiong J, Cheng L, Ma D, Wei J (2016) Destination-aided cooperative jamming for dual-hop amplify-and-forward MIMO untrusted relay systems. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 65(9):7274–7284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sun L, Du Q, Ren P, Wang Y (2016) Two birds with one stone: towards secure and interference-free D2D transmissions via constellation rotation. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 65(10):8767– 8774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ma R et al (2010) Secure communication in TDS-OFDM system using constellation rotation and noise insertion. IEEE Trans Consum Electro 56(3):1328–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kalantari A et al (2016) Directional modulation via symbol-level precoding: a way to enhance security. IEEE J Sel Top Sign Proces 10(8):1478–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang J et al (2013) Robust MIMO precoding for several classes of channel uncertainty. IEEE Trans Signal Process 61(12):3056–3070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bogale TE, Vandendorpe L, Chalise BK (2012) Robust transceiver optimization for downlink coodinated base station systems: distributed algorithm. IEEE Trans Signal Process 60(1):337–349MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gao F, Cui T, Nallanathan A (2008) On channel estimation and optimal training design for amplify and forward relay network. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 7(5):1907–1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gao F, Zhang R, Liang YC (2009) Optimal channel estimation and training design for two-way relay networks. IEEE Trans Commun 57(10):3024–3033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Faruque S (2015) Radio frequency propagation made easy. Springer Press, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Baum DS, Hansen J, Salo J (2005) An interim channel model for beyond-3G systems: extending the 3GPP spatial channel model (SCM). In: IEEE vehicular technology conference (VTC 2005-Spring), pp 3132–3136Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Datong Xu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Pinyi Ren
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Qinghe Du
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Li Sun
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yichen Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Electronic and Information EngineeringXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.National Simulation Education Center for Communications and Information SystemsXi’anChina
  3. 3.Shaanxi Smart Networks and Ubiquitous Access Research CenterXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations