Mobile Networks and Applications

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 712–720 | Cite as

Securing and Greening Wireless Sensor Networks with Beamforming

  • J . F. Valenzuela-ValdésEmail author
  • F. Luna
  • P. Padilla
  • J. L. Padilla
  • R. Luque-Baena
  • J. E. Agudo


Improving energy efficiency is one of the most important aspects in the Wireless Sensor Networks, being one of their main design goals. A key technique used in a wide range of wireless technologies is beamforming, as it provides a way of efficiently transmitting the radio signals towards a given (set of) target direction(s). In this work, the beamforming technique is jointly used with clustering in order to increase the lifetime in WSNs. In particular, scenarios with 2, 4, 5 and 10 nodes that install either ideal isotropic antennas or conventional dipoles are considered. The target direction to configure the beam has been set to ϕ = 0° and ϕ = 45°. Also, it is shown that beamforming can be used to transmit both efficiently and securely the signals by decreasing the power radiated in the direction of an enemy node. Different cases are analyzed with a different number of base stations and a different number of enemy nodes. A genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize the number of clusters and the phase and amplitude of the antennas of the WSN nodes in all scenarios and cases raised. Up to the authors’ knowledge, beamforming techniques have not been previously applied together to reduce the energy consumption in WSN and secure the communications simultaneously.


Wireless sensors networks Energy efficiency Beamforming Optimization techniques, physical layer security 



This work has been partially funded by the Government of Extremadura and the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) under the IB13113 project, and by the TIN2016-75097-P project of the Spanish National Program of Research, Development and Innovation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • J . F. Valenzuela-Valdés
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. Luna
    • 2
  • P. Padilla
    • 1
  • J. L. Padilla
    • 3
  • R. Luque-Baena
    • 4
  • J. E. Agudo
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Signal Theory, Telematics and Communications – CITICUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Languages and Computer ScienceUniversity of MalagaMalagaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Electronics and Computer Technology – CITICUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Computer and Telematic Systems EngineeringUniversity of ExtremaduraMeridaSpain

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