Advertisement

Genome-wide identification of flowering time genes in cucurbit plants and revealed a gene ClGA2/KS associate with adaption and flowering of watermelon

  • Licong YiEmail author
  • Yunqiang Wang
  • Xing Huang
  • Yu Gong
  • Shujing Wang
  • Zhaoyi DaiEmail author
Original Article
  • 41 Downloads

Abstract

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one of the major cucurbit crop that cultivated all over the world. Adaptability and flowering time are important agronomic characteristics that influence the quality and yield of watermelon, however, the molecular basis underlying these traits were still unclear. In this study, we identified 166, 182, 178, and 279 flowering genes in watermelon, melon, cucumber and pumpkin, respectively, and found that a lot of genes in the photoperiodic, autonomous, and vernalization pathways were absence in the four cucurbits. A higher ratio of flowering time genes was identified in the hormone pathway in cucurbits than in Arabidopsis, and a higher average ka/ks value of hormone pathway genes than the photoperiodic and vernalization pathway genes was identified in watermelon. Moreover, a gene ClGA2/KS (Cla005482) were found to associated with ecotype differentiation, flowering time, and whole growth period in watermelon. This study added knowledge to the molecular basis of flowering time regulation in cucurbits, and the molecule marker of ClGA2/KS gene may facilitate the breeding progress for selecting watermelon varieties with superior adaption and flowering time.

Keywords

Cucurbits Watermelon Adaption Flowering time ClGA2/KS 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of The People’s Republic of China (Grant No. 2018YFD0100704), the Ministry of Agriculture of China (CARS-25), and the Agricultural science and technology innovation center project of Hubei (Grant No. 2019-620-000-001-07).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest

Supplementary material

11033_2019_5200_MOESM1_ESM.tif (641 kb)
Electronic supplementary material 1 (TIF 641 kb)
11033_2019_5200_MOESM2_ESM.xls (30 kb)
Electronic supplementary material 2 (XLS 30 kb)
11033_2019_5200_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (115 kb)
Electronic supplementary material 3 (XLSX 115 kb)
11033_2019_5200_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (36 kb)
Electronic supplementary material 4 (XLSX 36 kb)
11033_2019_5200_MOESM5_ESM.xlsx (57 kb)
Electronic supplementary material 5 (XLSX 57 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Erickson DL, Smith BD, Clarke AC, Sandweiss DH, Tuross N (2005) An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas. Proc Natl Acad Sci 102(51):18315–18320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boss PK, Bastow RM, Mylne JS, Dean C (2004) Multiple pathways in the decision to flower: enabling, promoting, and resetting. Plant Cell 16(Suppl):S18–S31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andres F, Coupland G (2012) The genetic basis of flowering responses to seasonal cues. Nat Rev Genet 13(9):627–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bouche F, Lobet G, Tocquin P, Perilleux C (2016) FLOR-ID: an interactive database of flowering-time gene networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nucleic Acids Res 44(D1):D1167–D1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fornara F, de Montaigu A, Coupland G (2010) SnapShot: control of flowering in Arabidopsis. Cell 141(3):550, 550 e551-552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Srikanth A, Schmid M (2011) Regulation of flowering time: all roads lead to Rome. Cell Mol Life Sci 68(12):2013–2037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Valverde F, Mouradov A, Soppe W, Ravenscroft D, Samach A, Coupland G (2004) Photoreceptor regulation of CONSTANS protein in photoperiodic flowering. Science 303(5660):1003–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yoo SK, Chung KS, Kim J, Lee JH, Hong SM, Yoo SJ, Yoo SY, Lee JS, Ahn JH (2005) Constans activates suppressor of overexpression of constans 1 through flowering locus T to promote flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 139(2):770–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sheldon CC, Rouse DT, Finnegan EJ, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES (2000) The molecular basis of vernalization: the central role of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). P Natl Acad Sci 97(6):3753–3758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Johanson U (2000) Molecular analysis of FRIGIDA, a major determinant of natural variation in Arabidopsis flowering time. Science 290(5490):344–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mutasa-Gottgens E, Hedden P (2009) Gibberellin as a factor in floral regulatory networks. J Exp Bot 60(7):1979–1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sun TP (2011) The molecular mechanism and evolution of the GA-GID1-DELLA signaling module in plants. Curr Biol 21(9):R338–R345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fazio G, Staub JE, Stevens MR (2003) Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of horticultural traits in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using recombinant inbred lines. Theor Appl Genet 107(5):864–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lu H, Lin T, Klein J, Wang S, Qi J, Zhou Q, Sun J, Zhang Z, Weng Y, Huang S (2014) QTL-seq identifies an early flowering QTL located near flowering locus T in cucumber. Theor Appl Genet 127(7):1491–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Voorrips RE (2002) MapChart: software for the graphical presentation of linkage maps and QTLs. J Hered 93(1):77–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang Z, Li J, Zhao XQ, Wang J, Wong GK, Yu J (2006) KaKs_Calculator: calculating Ka and Ks through model selection and model averaging. Genom Proteom Bioinform 4(4):259–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang K, Li MY, Hakonarson H (2010) ANNOVAR: functional annotation of genetic variants from high-throughput sequencing data. Nucleic Acids Res 38(16):e164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guo SG, Zhang JG, Sun HH, Salse J, Lucas WJ, Zhang HY et al (2013) The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions. Nat Genet 45(1):51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yamaguchi S, Sun TP, KawaIDe H, Kamiya Y (1998) The GA2 locus of ArabIDopsis thaliana encodes ent-kaurene synthase of gibberellin biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 116(4):1271–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li HJ, Fan YH, Yu JY, Chai L, Zhang JF, Jiang J, Cui C, Zheng BC, Jiang LC, Lu K (2018) Genome-wIDe IDentification of flowering-time genes in Brassica Species and reveals a correlation between selective pressure and expression patterns of vernalization-pathway genes in Brassica napus Int J Molecular Sci 19(11):3632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Suárez-López P, Wheatley K, Robson F, Onouchi H, Valverde F, Coupland G (2001) CONSTANS mediates between the circadian clock and the control of flowering in Arabidopsis. Nature 410:1116–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Robson F, Costa MMR, Hepworth SR, Vizir I, Pineiro M, Reeves PH, Putterill J, Coupland G (2001) Functional importance of conserved domains in the fowering-time gene CONSTANS demonstrated by analysis of mutant alleles and transgenic plants. Plant J 28(6):619–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hassidim M, Harir Y, Yakir E, Kron I, Green RM (2009) Over-expression of CONSTANS-LIKE 5 can induce flowering in short-day grown Arabidopsis. Planta 230(3):481–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cheng XF, Wang ZY (2005) Overexpression of COL9, a CONSTANS-LIKE gene, delays flowering by reducing expression of CO and FT in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 43(5):758–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang P, Wang SB, Chen Y, Xu XM, Guang XM, Zhang YH (2019) Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-Box gene family in watermelon. Comput Biol Chem. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2019.04.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pimenta Lange MJ, Lange T (2006) Gibberellin biosynthesis and the regulation of plant development. Plant Biol 8(3):281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sun TP, Kamiya Y (1994) The Arabidopsis GA1 locus encodes the cyclase ent-kaurene synthetase A of gibberellin biosynthesis. Plant Cell 6(10):1509–1518PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sponsel VM, Schmidt FW, Porter SG, Nakayama M, Kohlstruk S, Estelle M (1997) Characterization of new gibberellin-responsive semidwarf mutants of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 115(3):1009–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hubei Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Enhancement and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Cash CropsHubei Academy of Agricultural ScienceWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Environment and Plant Protection InstituteChinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural SciencesHaikouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations