Molecular cloning and oxidative-stress responses of a novel manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum

  • Hui Wang
  • Hansol Kim
  • Weol-Ae Lim
  • Jang-Seu KiEmail author
Original Article


Dinoflagellate algae are microeukaryotes that have distinct genomes and gene regulation systems, making them an interesting model for studying protist evolution and genomics. In the present study, we discovered a novel manganese superoxide dismutase (PmMnSOD) gene from the marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum, examined its molecular characteristics, and evaluated its transcriptional responses to the oxidative stress-inducing contaminants, CuSO4 and NaOCl. Its cDNA was 1238 bp and contained a dinoflagellate spliced leader sequence, a 906 bp open reading frame (301 amino acids), and a poly (A) tail. The gene was coded on the nuclear genome with one 174 bp intron; signal peptide analysis showed that it might be localized to the mitochondria. Real-time PCR analysis revealed an increase in gene expression of MnSOD and SOD activity when P. minimum cells were separately exposed to CuSO4 and NaOCl. In addition, both contaminants considerably decreased chlorophyll autofluorescence, and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that dinoflagellate MnSOD may be involved in protecting cells against oxidative damage.


Prorocentrum minimum MnSOD ROS Genomic DNA Gene expression 



We thank Dr. S. Abbasi for critical comments on the early version of manuscript. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (2016R1D1A1A09920198), and by a grant from the National Institute of Fisheries Science (R2019037) funded to J.-S. Ki.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies conducted on human or animal subjects.

Supplementary material

11033_2019_5029_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 13 kb)


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologySangmyung UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Ocean Climate and Ecology Research DivisionNational Institute of Fisheries Science (NIFS)BusanSouth Korea

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