Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 5931–5939 | Cite as

Immunity augmentation in Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822) through carotenoid: a dietary approach

  • Partha Sarathi Tripathy
  • Ananya Khatei
  • Janmejay Parhi
  • Tanmoy Gon Choudhury
  • Lopamudra Sahoo
  • Sagar Chandra MandalEmail author
Original Article


The immunity and health status of ornamental fish is an important aspect, as they are kept in a confined environment and various stressful conditions which lead to depletion of overall colourful appearance and mortality. The carotenoids can act as immunity boosters in captive aquarium system and may be supplemented in the feed as aquarium fish have no access to natural carotenoids. The study aimed to assess the role of carotenoid on the immunity of B. dario. Marigold petal meal is an important source of carotenoids and used in experimental diets. Four immunogenes namely IL20, TLR9, TRAIL, and Nramp in B. dario were characterized and also studied for their relative expression in the kidney after feeding the fish with marigold petal meal supplemented diet. The expression pattern of the genes was compared with the fish of nature. The IL20 and Nramp gene were upregulated significantly (p < 0.05) in the fish of nature as compared to the experimental fish at the 60th day of feeding carotenoid-rich diet. But the TLR9 and TRAIL gene was upregulated significantly (p < 0.05) in experimental fish as compared to nature. The haematological parameters of fish after feeding with the experimental enriched diet for 60 days also confirmed the role of carotenoids in immunity.


Carotenoid Immunity Gene expression qPCR Sequencing 



The authors thank the Central Agricultural University, Imphal, India for providing fellowships to the first author and facilities for the experiment. The authors also thank the Centre of Excellence (COE) and Biotech Hub, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for providing instruments for the experiment.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fish Genetics and Reproduction, College of FisheriesCentral Agricultural University (Imphal)Lembucherra, Tripura WestIndia

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