PCR-based identification of point mutation mediating acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicide resistance in weed wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

  • Rozhin Khaledi
  • Farzad Fayaz
  • Danial KahriziEmail author
  • Reza Talebi
Original Article


Acetolactate synthase (ALS)—inhibiting herbicides have been widely used for effective management and control of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) biotypes in Iran. The resistance of the ALS inhibitor to weeds is attributed to either target site alteration or enhanced herbicide degradation. Molecular and genetic characterization of the resistance mechanism is relevant to the evolution and management of herbicide resistance. The aims of this research were (a) to characterize the mechanism molecular suspected to Granstar (tribenuron methyl) and Atlantis (Mesosulfuron + Iodosulfuron) resistance in S. arvensis biotypes in the greenhouse and laboratory (b) to investigate the organization of the target-site loci in field selected S. arvensis populations and (c) instantly recognize the mutations that cause resistance to ALS inhibitors. Eighty resistant populations of S. arvensis were carefully collected from fields repeatedly treated with Granstar and Atlantis. The resistance level and pattern of the population were determined through a greenhouse dose–response experiment by applying the above-mentioned herbicides. Extraction of genomic DNA was carried out for PCR and ALS gene analysis. Our results showed that by greenhouse experiment across 80 biotypes suspected to resistance collected in the fields of whole Kermanshah Province, 30 biotypes (37.5%) conferred S. arvensis resistance species reported in the farm. Among 30 biotypes screened in a greenhouse experiment, six biotypes (20%), No. 9, 14, 17, 19, 23 and 28 revealed a mutation in the ALS gene that was detected by PCR-based method. Biotype No. 9 in the position 376 (Asp376-Gly, GAC to GGC), biotypes 14 and 19 in the position 197 (Pro197-Ala, CCT to GCT), biotypes 17, 23 and 28 in the position 574 (Trp574-Leu, TGG to TTG) and biotype No. 23 in the position 122 (Thr-122-Ala, ACA to GCA) showed herbicide resistance. The specific mutation in the position of 122 of the ALS gene in S. arvensis is the first report. Other biotypes showed resistance in the greenhouse but didn’t indicate any mutation by PCR-based method. Most of the resistance to Granstar and Atlantis are genetic and are induced by mutations in the ALS gene. The resistance to herbicides may contain a non-mutagenic and non-genetic origin. The reason of herbicide resistance as non-target-site in some of the biotypes may relate to the activity of the herbicide-metabolizing enzyme(s) or transporter proteins that will naturally lead to an increase in herbicide degradation or compartmentation away from its active site.


Herbicide resistance ALS-inhibiting Point mutation Sinapis arvensis 


Author contributions

RK: Execution research project, Data analysis, Manuscript preparation. FF: Experimental design, Data analysis, proofreading of the article. DK: Data analysis, Manuscript preparation. RT: Experimental design, Data analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they does not have a conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of AgricultureIslamic Azad UniversitySanandajIran
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy and Plant BreedingRazi UniversityKermanshahIran

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