Probiotic supplementation attenuates hippocampus injury and spatial learning and memory impairments in a cerebral hypoperfusion mouse model

  • Hamideh Rahmati
  • Shahein Momenabadi
  • Abbas Ali Vafaei
  • Ahmad Reza Bandegi
  • Zohreh Mazaheri
  • Abedin VakiliEmail author
Original Article


Probiotics are referred to species of living microscopic organisms may help conserve the normal balance of the digestive system and/or manage diseases. A number of autoimmune, psychiatric, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders may be associated with the imbalance of gut microbiota. This study examines the effect of 21 days consumption of multistrain probiotics on hippocampus injury, spatial and learning memory and some potential molecular mechanisms in a mouse model with cerebral hypoperfusion. Cerebral hypoperfusion was established in the mouse model by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for 20 min and 24 h reperfusion. Mixtures of several probiotic bacteria at concentrations of 107, 108 and 109 CFU/day were orally administrated for 3 weeks before the BCCAO. Spatial and learning memory, histological damage and apoptosis were assessed in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus 24 h after ischemia. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level were measured by ELISA technique. Prophylactic of probiotic considerably reduced the number of apoptotic cells and neuronal death in the CA1, CA3 and DG of the hippocampus at all three concentrations (P < 0.001). In addition, probiotics reduced spatial memory impairment and neurological dysfunction only at the 109-CFU/day (P < 0.01). Nonetheless, probiotics did not change the levels of BDNF and MDA in the hippocampus (P > 0.05). According to the findings, the daily prophylactic ingestion of probiotics reduced hippocampus damage and prevented the spatial learning and memory deficit by suppressing apoptosis in the mouse model with cerebral hypoperfusion. Probiotic supplementation may be suggested as a useful preventive dietary strategy for groups susceptible to cerebrovascular diseases.


Cerebral hypoperfusion Ischemia Probiotic supplementation Apoptosis BDNF Spatial memory Mice 



This work was financially supported by Vice Chancellor for Research of Semnan University of Medical Sciences (Grant Number: 1306).We are grateful to the ZIST TAKHMIR Company for providing the LactoCare capsule. We thanks from Prof. Ali Rashidy-pour and Prof. Parviz Kokhaei for valuable comments and correction of manuscript. This article is extracted from the MS.c student thesis of Rahmati Hamideh.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have declared no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamideh Rahmati
    • 1
  • Shahein Momenabadi
    • 1
  • Abbas Ali Vafaei
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ahmad Reza Bandegi
    • 3
  • Zohreh Mazaheri
    • 4
  • Abedin Vakili
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center of PhysiologySemnan University of Medical SciencesSemnanIran
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, School of MedicineSemnan University of Medical SciencesSemnanIran
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineSemnan University of Medical SciencesSemnanIran
  4. 4.Basic Medical Science Research, Histogenotech CompanyTehranIran

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