Effect of Trichoderma spp. on Fusarium wilt disease of tomato
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Seven isolates of Trichoderma spp. (T1 to T7) from Egypt were evaluated in vitro by bioassay for their potential to antagonize Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL, the causal pathogen of tomato wilt disease). The highest percentage of inhibition against the tested pathogenic isolate were obtained with Trichoderma isolate (T7) followed by Trichoderma isolate (T3). In greenhouse experiments, the application of the highly antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp. (T3 and T7) led to a significant decrease of disease severity compared to the untreated control treatment. The lowest severity was achieved with the T3 isolate (24.8%) followed by isolate T7 (34.6%) compared with the other tested isolates. To understand the ability of Trichoderma isolates to protect against wilt disease, its induced systemic resistance in tomato plants has been studied. The expression of a defense-related gene (β-1,3-glucanase gene) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR in tomato plants to test the accumulation kinetics of transcripts encoding PR proteins in the roots of tomato in control (only with the pathogen), T3&FOL, and T7&FOL treatments. The highest degree of gene expression was found in tomato plants which were treated with T3&FOL compared with control (pathogen only). Two species of antagonistic Trichoderma (T3& T7) were characterized based on molecular tools using internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS4). The results of genetic characterization identified two different species of Trichoderma (T. atroviride and T. longibrachiatum).
KeywordsInduced resistance Tomato wilt disease Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) Real-time RT-PCR
The authors wish to thank Prof. Dr. Ralf T. Vögele and his research team, Department of Phytopathology, Agricultural Science Faculty, University of Hohenheim, Germany for supporting this work. We also appreciate Dr. Javed Siddique, Wheat Breeding and Training Director GRAIN Project of the Michigan State University in Afghanistan and Nathan Abshir, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA for discussing the results of this study. This work was supported and funded by Cultural Affairs & Mission Sector in Egypt.
This work was supported and funded by Cultural Affairs & Mission Sector in Egypt.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
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