Jeju ground water containing vanadium induces normal T cell development and immune activation in chronically stressed mice
Containing high concentration of vanadium served by the volcanic bedrock, Jeju ground water has long been known for various implicit health benefits including immune-promotion. Exposure to stress has been reported to be associated with immunosuppression such as reducing lymphocyte population or antibody production due to stress hormones. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of Jeju ground water on chronically stressed mice. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to various stressors such as restraint stress, water swimming stress, heat stress, acoustic stress, and Jeju ground water was supplied for 28 days with two different concentrations, S1 (vanadium 15–20 μg/l, pH 8.3) and S2 (vanadium 20–25 μg/l, pH 8.5). Treatment with Jeju ground water increased CD4+CD8− or CD4−CD8+ single-positive thymocytes. It also increased the proliferation of splenocytes and the populations of CD4+ T cells, CD45R/B220+ B cells, CD11b+ macrophages or Gr-1+ granulocytes in spleen. In addition, the production of IgG was increased in chronically stressed mice by treatment with Jeju ground water. These results suggest vanadium-rich Jeju ground water may be helpful in T cell development in thymus and immune cell proliferation and its function in spleen against chronic stress.
KeywordsJeju ground water Chronic stress Immune activation T cell development
Ammonium chloride potassium
One-way analysis of variance
Cluster of differentiation
- Con A
Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
Fetal bovine serum
- HPA axis
Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis
Nuclear factor kappa beta
The authors thank Dr. T.H. Chung for editorial assistance.
JC, SJB, AK, KHINMH performed experiments and analyzed data. GA helped to interpret the data and improve the manuscript. JC drafted the manuscript. YJ conceived of the study, designed the research and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This research was financially supported by the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Development Corporation (JPDC).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All animal experiments were conducted in accordance with the Jeju National University Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Jeju National University.
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