Jeju ground water containing vanadium induces normal T cell development and immune activation in chronically stressed mice

  • Jinhee Cho
  • So Jin Bing
  • Areum Kim
  • Kalahe Hewage Iresha Nadeeka Madushani Herath
  • Ginnae Ahn
  • Youngheun JeeEmail author
Original Article


Containing high concentration of vanadium served by the volcanic bedrock, Jeju ground water has long been known for various implicit health benefits including immune-promotion. Exposure to stress has been reported to be associated with immunosuppression such as reducing lymphocyte population or antibody production due to stress hormones. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of Jeju ground water on chronically stressed mice. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to various stressors such as restraint stress, water swimming stress, heat stress, acoustic stress, and Jeju ground water was supplied for 28 days with two different concentrations, S1 (vanadium 15–20 μg/l, pH 8.3) and S2 (vanadium 20–25 μg/l, pH 8.5). Treatment with Jeju ground water increased CD4+CD8 or CD4CD8+ single-positive thymocytes. It also increased the proliferation of splenocytes and the populations of CD4+ T cells, CD45R/B220+ B cells, CD11b+ macrophages or Gr-1+ granulocytes in spleen. In addition, the production of IgG was increased in chronically stressed mice by treatment with Jeju ground water. These results suggest vanadium-rich Jeju ground water may be helpful in T cell development in thymus and immune cell proliferation and its function in spleen against chronic stress.


Jeju ground water Chronic stress Immune activation T cell development 



Ammonium chloride potassium


One-way analysis of variance


Arginine vasopressin


Cluster of differentiation

Con A

Concanavalin A


Corticotropin-releasing hormone


Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline


Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay


Fetal bovine serum

HPA axis

Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis


Nuclear factor kappa beta






Standard error


T helper


Tap water



The authors thank Dr. T.H. Chung for editorial assistance.

Author contributions

JC, SJB, AK, KHINMH performed experiments and analyzed data. GA helped to interpret the data and improve the manuscript. JC drafted the manuscript. YJ conceived of the study, designed the research and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This research was financially supported by the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Development Corporation (JPDC).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

All animal experiments were conducted in accordance with the Jeju National University Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Jeju National University.

Supplementary material

11033_2019_4899_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research InstituteJeju National UniversityJejuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Laboratory of ImmunologyNational Eye Institute, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Advanced Convergence Technology & ScienceJeju National UniversityJejuRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Food Technology and NutritionChonnam National UniversityYeosuRepublic of Korea

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