Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 4397–4407 | Cite as

Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with flowering time in perilla using genotyping-by-sequencing

  • Yun-Joo Kang
  • Bo-Mi Lee
  • Moon Nam
  • Ki-Won Oh
  • Myoung-Hee Lee
  • Tae-Ho Kim
  • Sung-Hwan JoEmail author
  • Jeong-Hee LeeEmail author
Original Article


Understanding the transition to the reproductive period is important for crop breeding. This information can facilitate the production of novel varieties that are better adapted to local environments or changing climatic conditions. Here, we report the development of a high-density linkage map based on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for the genus perilla. Through GBS library construction and Illumina sequencing of an F2 population, a total of 9607 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed. The ten-group linkage map of 1309.39 cM contained 2518 markers, with an average marker density of 0.56 cM per linkage group (LG). Using this map, a total of six QTLs were identified. These quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are associated with three traits related to flowering time: days to visible flower bud, days to flowering, and days to maturity. Ortholog analysis conducted with known genes involved in the regulation of flowering time among different crop species identified GI, CO and ELF4 as putative perilla orthologs that are closely linked to the QTL regions associated with flowering time. These results provide a foundation that will be useful for future studies of flowering time in perilla using fine mapping, and marker-assisted selection for the development of new varieties of perilla.


Linkage map Genotyping-by-sequencing Orthologs Crop breeding Flowering 



This work was supported by a Grant from the National Agricultural Genome Project (Nos. PJ01040803, PJ01335503), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Author contributions

YJ, BM, SH, and JH conceived and designed the experiments; YJ and BM conducted the SNP analysis, linkage map construction, and data analysis; MN constructed the GBS library; KW and MH developed the mapping population and evaluated the plant phenotypes; TH provided the draft genome and participated in discussions about the experiments; YJ, SH and JH wrote the manuscript; and SH and JH reviewed the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11033_2019_4894_MOESM1_ESM.png (4.9 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PNG 5004 kb) Fig. S1 Frequency distributions. The frequency distributions of three flowering-related traits in the 96 studied F2 populations of the parental lines P. citriodora x P. hiretella. The values corresponding to the parental lines (PLs) are shown by the vertical line. A: days to visible flower bud; B: days to flowering; C: days to maturity.
11033_2019_4894_MOESM2_ESM.docx (36 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 35 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SEEDERS Inc.DaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.National Institute of Crop Science, RDAMiryangRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDAWanjuRepublic of Korea

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