Advances in cloning, structural and bioremediation aspects of nitrile hydratases

  • K. Supreetha
  • Saroja Narsing RaoEmail author
  • D. Srividya
  • H. S. Anil
  • S. Kiran
Mini Review


Nitrile hydratase (NHase) is a prominent enzyme in many microorganisms for its nitrile metabolism. The potentiality in the bioconversion of nitriles to its high-value amides has been extensively used in industries for the production of acrylamide and nicotinamide which are essential chemicals. Enzymologists are still considering NHases for its potential biotechnological applications including biotransformations and bioremediations. But most of the nitrile hydratases have limitations like the low expression, low thermostability and enantioselectivity. Though considerable data has been generated in the area of gene configuration, crystal structure, kinetic mechanism and photoreactivity of NHases, there is a need for constant improvement to develop a robust biocatalyst for bioremediation of toxic nitriles. With these considerations, in the present review, we report advances with the main focus to structure, catalytic mechanism, cloning strategy, gene expression, bioinformatic tools, metagenomics, thermostability and current bioremediation applications of NHases.


Nitrile hydratase Structure Cloning strategy Gene expression Genomics Thermostability Metagenomics Bioremediation 



We thank profusely Mr Vinay Kumar Rao, Temasek life sciences laboratory, Singapore for manuscript preparation. Our thanks are to Drs Govindappa M, Rajeswari N and Mahesh S, Department of Biotechnology, DSCE, Bengaluru for technical assistance and financial assistance from Karnataka Innovation and Technology Society (K-Tech), Govt. of Karnataka, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The Authors of this review article declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Research involving human and animal participant

This manuscript does not contain any experiments with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyDayananda Sagar College of Engineering Affiliated to Visveswaraya Technological UniversityBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Pesticide Residue and Food Quality Analysis LaboratoryUniversity of Agricultural SciencesRaichurIndia

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