Phytochemical, antioxidant, anti-proliferative and antimicrobial properties of Catharanthus roseus root extract, saponin-enriched and aqueous fractions
- 70 Downloads
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (C. roseus) is a well-known medicinal plant for its source of alkaloids solely found in the leaves. Other parts including the root are usually discarded after the alkaloid extraction. This study sought to investigate phytochemical profiles, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of the C. roseus root extract (RE) and its two sub-fractions including saponin-enriched (SE) and aqueous (AQ) fractions. The results showed that the RE was a rich source of saponins (1744.44 mg ESE/g) and phenolics (51.27 mg GAE/g), which comprised of gallic acid (25.74 mg/g), apigenin (1.45 mg/g) and kaempferol (1.58 mg/g). The SE fraction was enriched with 31% of saponins and 63% of phenolics higher than those of the RE; whereas the concentrations of saponins and phenolics of the AQ fraction were lower than those of the RE by 40% and 74%, respectively. The content of gallic acid in the SE fraction was 1.4-fold and 1.5-fold higher than those of the RE or AQ fraction, respectively. The SE fraction demonstrated potent antioxidant capacity, which was significantly higher than the RE or AQ fraction, and also exhibited strong anti-proliferative activity against 11 cancer cell lines including A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), MIA PaCa-2 (pancreas), Du145 (prostate), HT29 (colon), MCF-7 (breast), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), SJ-G2, U87 and SMA (glioblastoma) with low GI50 values (≤ 2.00 µg/mL). The SE fraction was also shown to effectively inhibit the growth of both bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococccus lugdunensis) and fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). These findings warrant further investigation to isolate major compounds from the SE fraction and further test their antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial activities.
KeywordsCatharanthus roseus Phytochemicals Anti-proliferative Antioxidant Antimicrobial properties
We would like to thank the University of Newcastle, Australia that awarded the scholarships (UNIPRS and UNRSC 50:50) to the first author.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 2.Imaida K, Fukushima S, Shirai T, Ohtani M, Nakanishi K, Ito N (1983) Promoting activities of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on 2-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis and inhibition of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci development in the liver of rats. Carcinogenesis 4:895–899. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/4.7.895 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Servili M, Esposto S, Fabiani R, Urbani S, Taticchi A, Mariucci F, Selvaggini R, Montedoro GF (2009) Phenolic compounds in olive oil: antioxidant, health and organoleptic activities according to their chemical structure. Inflammopharmacol 17:76–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10787-008-8014-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Verma P, Khan SA, Mathur AK, Srivastava A, Shanker K (2015) Tryptophan metabolism and evaluation of morphological, biochemical and molecular variations in a field grown plant population derived via direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration from pre-plasmolysed leaves of Catharanthus roseus. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 123:357–375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-015-0841-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Pham HNT, Vuong QV, Bowyer MC, Scarlett CJ (2017) Effect of extraction solvents and thermal drying methods on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Patricia White cultivar). J Food Process Preserv 41:e13199. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Pham HNT, Vuong QV, Bowyer MC, Scarlett CJ (2017) Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity of the crude extracts, aqueous- and saponin-enriched butanol fractions of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. leaves and stems. Chem Pap 71:2233–2242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-017-0216-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Vuong QV, Hirun S, Chuen TLK, Goldsmith CD, Munro B, Bowyer MC, Chalmers AC, Sakoff JA, Phillips PA, Scarlett CJ (2015) Physicochemical, antioxidant and anti-cancer activity of a Eucalyptus robusta (Sm.) leaf aqueous extract. Ind Crop Prod 64:167–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.10.061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Vuong QV, Sadeqzadeh E, Hirun S, Goldsmith CD, Zammitt N, Bowyer MC, Sakoff JA, Thorne RF, Weidenhofer J, Scarlett CJ (2014) Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties of the australian maroon bush Scaevola spinescens (Goodeniaceae). J Bioanal Biomed. https://doi.org/10.4172/1948-593X.S12-002 Google Scholar
- 25.Sen A, Batra A (2012) Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of medicinal plant: Melia azedarach L. Int J Curr Pharm Res 4:67–73Google Scholar