Isolation and characterization of 12 microsatellite loci in Epipedobates anthonyi (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) for population genetic analysis
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Tropical anurans are among the most diverse and vulnerable organisms on Earth, yet the evolutionary mechanisms behind their diversity remain relatively unexplored. Epipedobates anthonyi is a poison frog that inhabits southern Ecuador and northern Peru along a broad elevational range (0–1800 m). Throughout its range, this species exhibits variation in phenotypic traits, such as color, advertisement calls, and alkaloid composition. The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize microsatellite loci to investigate patterns of genetic variation within the species. Using a next-generation sequencing approach to screen an enriched genomic library, we report twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 15 per population. For the two populations tested, mean observed heterozygosity was 0.69 and 0.79, and mean expected heterozigosity was 0.84 and 0.85 respectively. Only locus EAN002 showed significant departure of HWE in both populations. None of the loci showed consistent null alleles in both populations. Also, no evidence of linkage disequilibrium was found across loci. In this paper, we report for the first time 12 microsatellite loci for E. anthonyi. These markers will be used to further elucidate evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic and phenotypic variation across the species’ range.
KeywordsEpipedobates anthonyi Frogs Microsatellites Population genetics
This study was supported by the Secretaría Nacional de Educación Superior, Ciencia y Tecnología del Ecuador. We thank Luis A. Coloma, Lola Guarderas, and Elicio Tapia at Centro Jambatu for Amphibian Research and Conservation (Quito, Ecuador) for assistance during fieldwork. We thank W. Chris Funk and Sarah Fitzpatrick for their assistance during microsatellites development and for reviewing earlier versions of the manuscript. All animals were collected and analyzed following Ecuadorian legislation (No. 003-11 IC-FAU-DNB/MA), and a Colorado State University Institutional Animal Care and Use Protocol (IACUC #12-3676A).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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