Blood pressure lowering effect of Ficus deltoidea var kunstleri in spontaneously hypertensive rats: possible involvement of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, endothelial function and anti-oxidant system

  • Norasikin Ab Azis
  • Renu Agarwal
  • Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
  • Nor Hadiani Ismail
  • Mohd Saleh Ahmad Kamal
  • Zurain Radjeni
  • Harbindar Jeet SinghEmail author
Original Article


This study investigated the effects of a standardised ethanol and water extract of Ficus deltoidea var. Kunstleri (FDK) on blood pressure, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), endothelial function and antioxidant system in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Seven groups of male SHR were administered orally in volumes of 0.5 mL of either FDK at doses of 500, 800, 1000 and 1300 mg kg− 1, or captopril at 50 mg kg− 1 or losartan at 10 mg kg− 1 body weight once daily for 4 weeks or 0.5 mL distilled water. Body weight, systolic blood pressures (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every week. 24-hour urine samples were collected at weeks 0 and 4 for electrolyte analysis. At week 4, sera from rats in the control and 1000 mg kg− 1 of FDK treated groups were analyzed for electrolytes and components of RAAS, endothelial function and anti-oxidant capacity. SBP at week 4 was significantly lower in all treatment groups, including captopril and losartan, when compared to that of the controls. Compared to the controls, ACE activity and concentrations of angiotensin I, angiotensin II and aldosterone were lower whereas concentrations of angiotensinogen and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 were higher in FDK treated rats. Concentration of eNOS and total anti-oxidant capacity were higher in FDK treated rats. Urine calcium excretion was higher in FDK treated rats. In conclusion, it appears that ethanol and water extract of FDK decreases blood pressure in SHR, which might involve mechanisms that include RAAS, anti-oxidant and endothelial system.


ACE ACE2 Ficus deltoidea Hypertension RAAS SHR 



This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) (100-RMI/MOA/ 16/62).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversiti Teknologi MARASungai BulohMalaysia
  2. 2.Center for Neuroscience Research, Faculty of MedicineUniversiti Teknologi MARASungai BulohMalaysia
  3. 3.I-PPerFORM, Universiti Teknologi MARASungai BulohMalaysia
  4. 4.Faculty of MedicineInternational Medical UniversityBukit Jalil, Kuala LumpurMalaysia
  5. 5.Atta-ur-Rahman Institute of Natural Product Discovery (AuRIns), Faculty of PharmacyUniversiti Teknologi MARAKuala SeangorMalaysia

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