Aluminum doped carbon nanodots as potent adjuvants on the mammalian macrophages
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In this manuscript, we aimed to report the synthesis of aluminum (Al) incorporated carbon nanodots (CD) and their activities on the immune cells. A green synthesis method involving the in situ doping of the nanodot was conducted. Synthesized nanodots immunomodulatory and immunostimulatory activities were tested in vitro on the macrophages. The produced carbon dots were water-soluble, fluorescent and monodispersed, with an average diameter of around 10–20 nm. After Al-doping, their surface properties, stability, crystallinity, as well as their fluorescent and optical properties were evaluated. These Al-CDs displayed no cytotoxicity and enhanced the pro-inflammatory activities of the mammalian macrophages with much lower aluminum concentrations (‰ 20) compared to that of conventional aluminum salt, by virtue of which they have the potential to serve as safe and effective adjuvant carrier. The stability of the nanocarriers was found to be persistent for over 3 months at room temperature with no significant formation of the aggregates. These results support the promise of such nanodots as the new generation non-toxic adjuvant candidates.
KeywordsCarbon nanodots Aluminum doped nanomaterials Inflammation Macrophage Adjuvants
Tumor nacrosis factor-α
- RAW 264.7
Mouse macrophage cell line
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
This study was supported by 2017-2-AP-4-2506 BAP Project of Mersin University. Our group greatly appreciates the material support of Prof. Dr. Juan Anguita from CICBiogune.
This study was supported by 2017-2-AP-4-2506 BAP Project of Mersin University.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing financial and non-financial interest.
No ethical consent was required for this type of study.
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