Arsenic-induced inflammation in workers
- 69 Downloads
Occupational and environmental exposures to metal and metalloids can result in neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity. Selenium (Se) is essential for the proper functioning of neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, T-lymphocytes and other immune mechanisms, while zinc (Zn) is a trace element essential for basic cell activities, including cell growth and differentiation. Arsenic (As) may lead to different types of immunosuppressive effects. This study consisted of 62 male workers, who had been exposed to arsenic for different durations and 73 non-exposed male workers (control group) with no history of occupational toxic metal exposure. Whole blood and serum samples were taken from each participant for immunological, toxicological and routine analysis during their annual periodical examination. Arsenic, selenium and zinc levels were determined by the ICP-MS and cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, sE-selectin and VCAM-1, were measured by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) between control and As-exposed group in As (1.37 ± 0.42 vs. 4.27 ± 1.54 µg/L) and Se levels (106.37 ± 48.04 vs. 74.70 ± 30.45 µg/L). The changing levels of As, Zn and Se seems to affect the severity of inflammatory reactions based on IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels (r = 0.755, r = 0.679 and r = 0.617, respectively, for all p < 0.01). Selenium was found to have a suppressive effect on cytokines, as evidenced by Pearson correlations and regression analysis. These findings support the need to closely monitor Se levels in individuals exposed to arsenic and benefits for Se supplementation in the case of arsenic exposure, occupationally or environmentally.
KeywordsInflammation Cytokine levels Selenium Zinc
This study was supported by Yozgat Bozok University Scientific Research Foundation (Decision No: 6602c-TF/17-96).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethics committee.
All participants were volunteers who were informed of the study protocol and gave informed consent.
- 7.Duana X, Gao S, Li J, Wuc L, Zhanga Y, Li W, Zhaoa L, Chena J, Yanga S, Suna G, Li B (2017) Acute arsenic exposure induces inflammatory responses and CD4 + T cell subpopulations differentiation in spleen and thymus with the involvement of MAPK, NF-kB, and Nrf2. Mol Immunol 81:160–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Escobar J, Varela-Nallar L, Coddou C, Nelson P, Maisey K, Valdés D, Aspee A, Espinosa V, Rozas C, Montoya M, Mandiola C, Rodríguez FE, Acuña-Castillo C, Escobar A, Fernández R, Diaz H, Sandoval M, Imarai M, Rios M (2010) Oxidative damage in lymphocytes of copper smelter workers correlated to higher levels of excreted arsenic. Mediat Inflamm 40:3830. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/403830 Google Scholar
- 10.Hernández-Castro B, Doníz-Padilla LM, Salgado-Bustamante M, Rocha D, Ortiz-Pérez MD, Jiménez-Capdeville ME, Portales-Pérez DP, Quintanar-Stephano A, González-Amaro R (2009) Effect of arsenic on regulatory T cells. J Clin Immunol 29(4):461–469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10875-009-9280-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Selvaraj V, Tomblin J, Yeager Armistead M, Murray E (2013) Selenium (sodium selenite) causes cytotoxicity and apoptotic mediated cell death in PLHC–1 fishcell line through DNA and mitochondrial membrane potential damage. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 87:80–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.09.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Vinceti M, Solovyev N, Mandrioli J, Crespi CM, Bonvicini F, Arcolin E, Georgoulopoulou E, Michalke B (2013) Cerebrospinal fluid of newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients exhibits abnormallevels of selenium species including elevated selenite. Neurotoxicology 38:25–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2013.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Prasad AS, Fitzgerald JT, Bao B, Beck FW, Chandrasekar PH (2000) Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 133(4):245–252. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-133-4-200008150-00035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Banupriya N, Vishnu Bhat B, Benet BD, Sridhar MG, Parija SC (2017) Efficacy of zinc supplementation on serum calprotectin, inflammatory cytokines and outcome in neonatal sepsis—a randomized controlled trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 30(13):1627–1631. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2016.1220524 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Beaver LM, Truong L, Barton CL, Chase TT, Gonnerman GD, Wong CP, Tanguay RL, Ho E (2017) Combinatorial effects of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. PLoS ONE 12(8):e0183831. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.01838314
- 28.Ahmed S, Mahabbat-e Khoda S, Rekha RS, Gardner RM, Ameer SS, Moore S, Ekström EC, Vahter M, Raqib R (2010) Arsenic-associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune disruption in human placentaand cord blood. Environ Health Perspect 119(2):258–264. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002086 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Fry RC, Navasumrit P, Valiathan C, Svensson JP, Hogan BJ, Luo M, Bhattacharya S, Kandjanapa K, Soontararuks S, Nookabkaew S, Mahidol C, Ruchirawat M, Samson LD (2007) Activation of inflammation/NF-kappaB signaling in infants born to arsenic-exposed mothers. PLoS Genet 3(11):e207. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Xue P, Hou Y, Zhang Q, Woods CG, Yarborough K, Liu H, Sun G, Andersen ME, Pi J (2011) Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-Stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylationand glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 407(2):360–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.03.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB (2010) Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Radic Biol Med 49(11):1603–1616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Ip C, Thompson HJ, Zhu Z, Ganther HE (2000) In vitro and in vivo studies of methylseleninic acid: evidence that a monomethylated seleniummetabolite is critical for cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Res 60(11):2882–2886Google Scholar
- 40.Casaril AM, Ignasiak MT, Chuang CY, Vieira B, Padilha NB, Carroll L, Lenardão EJ, Savegnago L, Davies MJ (2017) Selenium-containing indolyl compounds: kinetics of reaction with inflammation-associated oxidants and protective effect against oxidation of extracellular matrix proteins. Free Radic Biol Med 113:395–405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.10.344 CrossRefGoogle Scholar