Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 2231–2241 | Cite as

Phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antimutagenic activity in different growth stages of in vitro raised plants of Origanum vulgare L.

  • Aseesh PandeyEmail author
  • Tarun Belwal
  • Sushma Tamta
  • I. D. Bhatt
  • R. S. Rawal
Original Article


Efficient micropropagation procedure was developed for Origanum vulgare, a high-value culinary herb, and the phytochemicals, phenolic content, antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of leaf and stem, derived from different growing stages were analyzed. The agar solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with a combination of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid was optimized as best shoot-multiplication-medium. Shoots were rooted best on 1/2 strength MS medium supplemented with 50 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized ex vitro in a soil, sand and farmyard manure mixture (2:1:1 v/v/v) with 100% survival rate in greenhouse. The total anthocyanin and total phenolic content were observed significantly higher in leaves of in vitro-raised plants. However, total tannin, flavonoid and antioxidant activity remained higher in leaves of mother plant maintained under ployhouse condition. All the plant extracts have shown significant antimutagenic activity except in vitro-growing plants. A total of 13 polyphenolic compounds were detected in different extracts using high performance liquid chromatography. Among these, catechin was detected maximum in in vitro-growing cultures and chlorogenic acid in leaves of mother plant. These findings will help the farmers, medicinal plant growers, and industries for mass multiplication and effective extraction of phytochemicals from O. vulgare.


Anthocyanin Shoot elongation Micropropagation Polyphenolics HPLC 



Ascorbic acid equivalent


2,2-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)


Above mean sea level




Cyanidin 3-glucoside




Diode-array detection


Gibberellic acid


Gallic acid equivalent


High performance liquid chromatography


Indole-3-butyric acid


In vitro-raised plant leaf


In vitro-raised plant stem


In vitro-growing cultures


Mother plant leaf


Mother plant stem


Murashige and Skoog


α-Naphthaleneacetic acid


Phosphate-buffered saline


Plant growth regulators


Tannic acid equivalent


Tris borate ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid


Quercetin equivalent


Micro mole



Authors thank Director G. B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, for his encouragement and facilities. Authors also thank Head, Department of Biotechnology, Bhimtal Campus, Kumaun University Nainital for facilities and encouragement during the initial stage of experimentation. Colleagues of Biodiversity Conservation and Management theme are thanked for cooperation and help during the study. Anonymous reviewers are gratefully acknowledged for providing useful inputs to improve the manuscript draft.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

11033_2019_4678_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (417 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 417 KB)
11033_2019_4678_MOESM2_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 17 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.G. B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentAlmoraIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology, Bhimtal CampusKumaun UniversityNainitalIndia
  3. 3.G. B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentSikkim Regional CentreGangtokIndia

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