Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 2561–2566 | Cite as

Complete mitochondrial genome of Indian mithun, Bos frontalis and its phylogenetic implications

  • Vandana R. Prabhu
  • Moolamkudy Suresh Arjun
  • Karippadakam Bhavana
  • Ranganathan Kamalakkannan
  • Muniyandi NagarajanEmail author
Short Communication


Mithun (Bos frontalis) is an endangered domestic bovine species native to the hilly areas of China, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Bhutan and India. It is believed to have been domesticated from gaur around 8000 years ago. However, a few studies suggest that mithun is either an independent species or a hybrid descendant of gaur and cattle. Therefore, to understand the evolutionary history of mithun, the complete mitochondrial genome of Indian mithun was sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genome of closely related Bos species. The mitochondrial genome of mithun was 16,346 bp long and consisted of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region. The phylogenetic assessments of Indian mithun along with other Bos species showed a very close genetic relationship of Indian mithun with gaur suggesting that Indian mithun might have evolved from gaur.


Mithun Gayal Gaur Mitochondrial DNA Domestication 



We are grateful to the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and technology, Government of India, New Delhi for financial Assistance (EMR/2015/000937). The first author is grateful to the DST-INSPIRE (IF160266) for the support in the form of research fellowship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study was performed in compliance with ethical standards of international and national guidelines for the care and use of animals. This study does not require Ethical approval as the tissue samples used were collected from the dead specimens at slaughterhouses.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Genomic Science, School of Biological SciencesCentral University of KeralaKasaragodIndia

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