Do ACE and CKMM gene variations have potent effects on physical performance in inactive male adolescents?
We studied to ascertain whether the ACE and/or CKMM genotypes independently influence the baseline level of some sport performances in 613 inactive male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 13.24 ± 0.28 years). All DNA samples were extracted and genotyped for ACE I/D and CKMM A/G polymorphisms using a PCR based procedure. One-way analysis of covariance was used to examine the discrepancies in the research phenotypes among various ACE and CKMM polymorphisms. The comparisons of genotype and allele frequencies between adolescents with the best and the worst performances were calculated and analyzed by the Chi square test. All procedures were approved by Medical University Ethics Committee. Written informed consent signed and approved by all subject`s parents were obtained. We observed the effect of the ACE and CKMM polymorphisms on VO2max (P = 0.001 & P = 0.001 respectively). ACE and CKMM genotypes differed between groups (< 90th vs. ≥ 90) in the multi-stage 20 m shuttle run (P = 0.001 and 0.001). ACE allele frequencies differed between groups (< 90th vs. ≥ 90) in the multi-stage 20-m shuttle run (P = 0.001). This study suggests that the ACE and CKMM polymorphisms influence the endurance performance phenotype in non-trained adolescent males.
KeywordsPerformance Heritability Phenotype Athletic SNPs
The study was designed by FZ and NF; data were collected and analyzed by AHS, NK and AM; manuscript preparation and data interpretation were undertaken by NF, MG and FZ. All authors approved the final version of the paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All of the authors of this research have nothing to disclose.
All procedures were approved by the medical sciences ethics committee of Islamic Azad University-Tabriz Branch (No: REC.1396.73). The names of approving committee were Dr. Gholamreza Asadi, Dr. Mahmoud Beheshti, Dr. Fatemeh Afshari, Dr. Seyyed Babak Khalifeh Zadeh and Dr. Mohammad Taghi Zadiyeh.
Written informed consent signed and approved by all subject`s parents were obtained.
- 12.Gronek P, Holdys J (2013) Genes and physical fitness. TRENDS in Sport Sci 1(20):16–29Google Scholar
- 20.Nieman DC (2011) Exercise testing and prescription a health-related approach. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 23.Gray DT, Baker JS, Buchan D. Weight, Status (2013) Physical activity and the associations with health related physical fitness in nine to twelve year old scottish children. J Sports Med Doping Stud 3(2):1–5Google Scholar
- 24.Bosco C (1994) Strength assessment with the bosco’s test. Paidotribo, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
- 27.Aboshkair K, Amri S, Kok L-Y, Khaleel Khammas R, Yousuf Hussein A (2012) Relations between health-related physical fitness, physical activity, and bmi among children in Selangor, Malaysia. Wulfenia J 19(10):67–81Google Scholar
- 46.Fedotovskaya O, Eider J, Pawel C, Jascaniene N (2013) Association of muscle-specific creatine kinase (CKM) gene polymorphism with combat athlete status in polish and Russian cohorts. Arch Budo 9(4):233–237Google Scholar
- 48.Walter L, Rauh F, Heine L, Rothermel E, Gunther E (1993) RT1-linked heat shock protein 70 genes. Transplant Proc 25(5):2771–2772Google Scholar