Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 1835–1843 | Cite as

Do ACE and CKMM gene variations have potent effects on physical performance in inactive male adolescents?

  • Farzad ZehsazEmail author
  • Amir Hamzeh Safabakhsh
  • Negin Farhangi
  • Narmin Keynezhad
  • Amir Monfaredan
  • Mehri Ghahramani
Original Article


We studied to ascertain whether the ACE and/or CKMM genotypes independently influence the baseline level of some sport performances in 613 inactive male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 13.24 ± 0.28 years). All DNA samples were extracted and genotyped for ACE I/D and CKMM A/G polymorphisms using a PCR based procedure. One-way analysis of covariance was used to examine the discrepancies in the research phenotypes among various ACE and CKMM polymorphisms. The comparisons of genotype and allele frequencies between adolescents with the best and the worst performances were calculated and analyzed by the Chi square test. All procedures were approved by Medical University Ethics Committee. Written informed consent signed and approved by all subject`s parents were obtained. We observed the effect of the ACE and CKMM polymorphisms on VO2max (P = 0.001 & P = 0.001 respectively). ACE and CKMM genotypes differed between groups (< 90th vs. ≥ 90) in the multi-stage 20 m shuttle run (P = 0.001 and 0.001). ACE allele frequencies differed between groups (< 90th vs. ≥ 90) in the multi-stage 20-m shuttle run (P = 0.001). This study suggests that the ACE and CKMM polymorphisms influence the endurance performance phenotype in non-trained adolescent males.


Performance Heritability Phenotype Athletic SNPs 



The study was designed by FZ and NF; data were collected and analyzed by AHS, NK and AM; manuscript preparation and data interpretation were undertaken by NF, MG and FZ. All authors approved the final version of the paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All of the authors of this research have nothing to disclose.

Ethical approval

All procedures were approved by the medical sciences ethics committee of Islamic Azad University-Tabriz Branch (No: REC.1396.73). The names of approving committee were Dr. Gholamreza Asadi, Dr. Mahmoud Beheshti, Dr. Fatemeh Afshari, Dr. Seyyed Babak Khalifeh Zadeh and Dr. Mohammad Taghi Zadiyeh.

Informed consent

Written informed consent signed and approved by all subject`s parents were obtained.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Tabriz BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTabrizIran

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