Testing the influence of negative and positive emotion on future health-promoting behaviors in a community sample
Adaptive behaviors, such as exercise and relaxation, are well-demonstrated to provide broad benefits, yet little is known about how emotion precede and/or influence their use. Broadly, literature suggests that adaptive health behaviors are enacted for the purpose of regulating negative affective experiences. However, other theoretical work suggests that positive affect precedes adaptive health behaviors, serving to maintain positive affective states. We sought to explicitly test the role of within-person fluctuations in negative and positive emotion in future adaptive behavior. Adults (n = 56) who were either psychologically healthy (n = 22) or diagnosed with major depression and/or social anxiety disorder (n = 34) completed an in-lab diagnostic interview, followed by a 14-day experience sampling diary measuring within-person fluctuations in positive and negative emotion and health behaviors. Within-person levels of positive affect was significantly associated with future positive health behaviors. Prior positive behaviors was also significantly associated with behaviors reported in the next signal. Additionally, mean positive affect was significantly associated with engagement in positive health behaviors. There were no significant associations for within-person or mean negative affect, and there were no group differences. Together, these results support a maintenance model, such that within-person increases in positive affect predicted future report of positive health behaviors.
KeywordsEmotions Experience sampling Health behaviors Positive affect
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Bolger, N., & Laurenceau, J. (2013). Intensive longitudinal methods: An introduction to diary and experience sampling research. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Bonanno, G. A., Goorin, L., & Coifman, K. G. (2008). Sadness and grief. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 797-810). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Connor, T. S., & Lehman, B. J. (2012). Getting started: Launching a study in daily Life. In M. R. Mehl & T. S. Connor (Eds.), Handbook of research methods for studying daily life (pp. 89–107). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Creswell, J. D., Taren, A. A., Lindsey, E. L., Greco, C. M., Gianaros, P. J., Fairgrieve, A., Marsland, A. L., Brown, K. W., Way, B. M., Rosen, R. K., & Ferris, J. L. (2016). Alterations in resting state functional connectivity link mindfulness meditation with reduced Interleukin-6; a randomized controlled trial. Biological Psychiatry, 80, 53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- DiNardo, P. A., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1994). Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Life Time Version: Client Interview Schedule. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- First, M. B., Gibbon, M., Spitzer, R., Williams, J. B. W., & Benjamin, L. S. (1997). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders (SCID-II). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.Google Scholar
- First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. (2002). Structural clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR, research version, non-patient edition. New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
- Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. New York, NY; Paris: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.kent.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1987-97938-000&site=ehost-live.
- Hirosaki, M., Ishimoto, Y., Kasahara, Y., Kimura, Y., Konno, A., Sakamoto, R., … Matsubayashi, K. (2009). Community-dwelling elderly Japanese people with hobbies are healthier than those lacking hobbies. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(6), 1132–1133. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02291.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang, T., Liu, C., Tsai, Y., Chin, Y., & Wong, C. (2015). Physical fitness exercise versus cognitive behavioral therapy on reducing depressive symptoms among community-dwelling elderly adults: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52, 1542–1552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kendall, A. D., Zinbarg, R. E., Mineka, S., Bobova, L., Prenoveau, J. M., Revelle, W., & Craske, M. G. (2015). Prospective associations of of low positive emotionality with first onset of depressive and anxiety disorders: Results from a 10-wave latent trait-state modeling study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(4), 933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kok, B. E., Coffey, K. A., Cohn, M. A., Catalino, L. I., Vacharkulksemsuk, T., Algoe, S. B., et al. (2013). How positive emotions build physical health: Perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological Science, 24(7), 1123–1132. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612470827.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liao, Y., Shonkoff, E. T., & Dunton, G. F. (2015). The acute relationships between affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in daily life: A review of current evidence. Frontiers in Psychology, 6. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.kent.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2016-22185-001&site=ehost-live.
- Linehan, M. M. (2015). DBT® skills training manual (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Lowenstein, G., & Lerner, J. S. (2003). The role of affect in decision making. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds). Handbook of affective science. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Luyckx, K., Klimstra, T. A., Duriez, B., Schwartz, S. J., & Vanhalst, J. (2012). Identity processes and coping strategies in college students: Short-term longitudinal dynamics and the role of personality. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(9), 1226–1239. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9753-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Netz, Y. (2017). Is the comparison between exercise and pharmacological treatment of depression in the clinical practice guideline of the American College of Physicians evidence-based? Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8(257), 1–9.Google Scholar
- Reichert, M., Tost, H., Reinhard, I., Zipf, A., Salize, H., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., & Ebner-Priemer, U. W. (2016). Within-subject associations between mood dimensions and non-exercise activity: An ambulatory assessment approach using repeated real-time and objective data. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rini, C., Austin, J., Wu, L. M., Winkel, G., Valdimarsdottir, H., Stanton, A. L., … Redd, W. H. (2014). Harnessing benefits of helping others: A randomized controlled trial testing expressive helping to address survivorship problems after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Health Psychology, 33(12), 1541–1551. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1996). Feelings and phenomenal experiences. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles. (pp. 433–465). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.kent.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1996-98402-015&site=ehost-live.
- Shrout, P. E., & Lane, S. P. (2012). Psychometrics. In M. R. Mehl & T. S. Conner (Eds.), Handbook of research methods for studying daily life (pp. 302–320). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Stathopoulou, G., Powers, M. B., Berry, A. C., Smits, J. A. J., & Otto, M. W. (2006). Exercise interventions for mental health: A quantitative and qualitative review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 13, 179–193.Google Scholar
- Takeda, F., Noguchi, H., Monma, T., & Tamiya, N. (2015). How possibly do leisure and social activities impact mental health of middle-aged adults in Japan?: An evidence from a National Longitudinal Survey. PLoS ONE, 10(10). Retrieved from https://proxy.library.kent.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2016-04754-001&site=ehost-live.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Turner, A. P., Hartoonian, N., Sloan, A. P., Benich, M., Kivlahan, D. R., Hughes, C., Hughes, A. J., & Haselkorn, J. K. (2016). Improving fatigue and depression in individuals with multiple sclerosis using telephone administered physical activity counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84, 297–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Weiss, H. M., Beal, D. J., Lucy, S. L., & MacDermid, S. M. (2004). Constructing EMA studies with PMAT: The Purdue Momentary Assessment Tool user’s manual.Google Scholar
- Zimmerman, M. (1994). Interview guide for evaluating DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and the mental status examination. East Greenwich: Psych Products Press.Google Scholar