Advertisement

Water resource system risk and adaptive management of the Chinese Heihe River Basin in Asian arid areas

  • Shijin WangEmail author
  • Yanqiang Wei
Original Article
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

Water scarcity is a challenging environmental problem in global arid regions in the twenty-first century. Global climate change and urban economic development exacerbate the problem of limited water supply and water shortage. In Asian arid areas, water has been being an important economic lifeline to maintain a healthy and sustainable oasis system. This study took the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in China’s north-western arid area as a typical case region, identified an analytic framework of water resource system risk (WRSR) and analysed systematically the WRSR degree from the different perspectives. The results indicated that the runoff from mountainous watershed showed an increasing trend, but the total amount of watershed water resource showed a decreasing trend in the HRB in the past 50 years. Besides serious drought risk in recent 20 years, the WRSR is mainly from excessive water use in agriculture irrigation. Overall, the WRSR has increased from the year 2000 onward and is expected to increase and fluctuate in the future. Similarly, the potential WRSR is also huge in some arid watersheds relied heavily on glacial runoff in the world. In order to reduce water scarcity risk, it is necessary to implement and carry out effectively the watershed management policies of water resource; coordinate with the balance between the river and tributaries, surface water and groundwater and water quantity and quality to ensure the reasonable water supply in the different regions and water sectors; and promote rational industry structure adjustment and the innovations and applications of water saving and conservancy science and technology.

Keywords

Arid area Water resource Risk analysis Risk management 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The data used in this study can be requested from authors (xiaohanjin@126.com).

Funding information

This work was funded by class A strategic pilot science and technology special subtopics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA19070503).

References

  1. Aleksandrova M, Gain AK, Giupponi C (2015) Assessing agricultural systems vulnerability to climate change to inform adaptation planning: an application in Khorezm, Uzbekistan. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 21:1263–1287.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-015-9655-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. An ML, Zhang B, Sun LW et al (2013) Quantitative analysis of dynamic change of land use and its influencing factors in upper reaches of the Heihe river. J Glaciol Geocryol 35(2):355–363 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Benini L, Bandini V, Marazza D, Contin A (2010) Assessment of land use changes through an indicator-based approach: a case study from the Lamone river basin in Northern Italy. Ecol Indic 10:4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bie Q, Qiang WL, Wang C et al (2013) Monitor glacier variation in the upper reaches of the Heihe river based on remote sensing in 1960-2010. J Glaciol Geocryol 53(3):574–580 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. Borchardt D, Bogardi J, Ibisch R (2016) Integrated water resources management: concept, research and implementation. Springer, Heidelberg & New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bossel H (1999) Indicators for sustainable development: theory, method, applications. A report to the Balaton group, Winnipeg, International Institute for Sustainable Development, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  7. Burke EJ, Brown SJ (2008) Evaluation uncertainties in the projection of future drought. J Hydrometeorol 9(2):292–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen YN, Yang Q, Luo Y et al (2012) Ponder on the issues of water resources in the arid region of northwest China. Arid Land Geography 35(1):1–8 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Chen J, Wan S, Henebry G et al (2013) Dryland East Asia: land dynamics amid social and climate change. Higher Education Press, Berlin and BeijingCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng GD, Zhao CY (2006) Study on ecological water demand in arid area of Northwestern China. Nat Sci Rev 21(11):1101–1106Google Scholar
  11. Cheng GD, Li X, Zhao WZ, Xu Z, Feng Q, Xiao S, Xiao H (2014) Integrated study of the water–ecosystem–economy in the Heihe River Basin. Nat Sci Rev 1(3):413–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cutter SL (1996) Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Prog Hum Geogr 20:529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deng XZ, Zhao CH (2015) Identification of water scarcity and providing solutions for adapting to climate changes in the Heihe River basin of China. Adv Meteorol 6-7:1–13Google Scholar
  14. Falkenmark M (2013) The multiform water scarcity dimension. In: Lankford B, Bakker K, Zeitoun M, Conway D (eds) Water security: principles perspectives and practices, 1st edn. Routledge, OxonGoogle Scholar
  15. Farinotti D, Longuevergne L, Moholdt G, Duethmann D, Mölg T, Bolch T, Vorogushyn S, Güntner A (2015) Substantial glacier mass loss in the Tien Shan over the past 50 years. Nat Geosci 8:716–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fu BJ, Zhou GY, Bai YF et al (2009) The main terrestrial ecosystem services and ecological security in China. Adv Earth Sci 24(6):571–574 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. Fussel HM, Klein RJT (2006) Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking. Clim Chang 75:301–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gain AK, Giupponi C (2015) A dynamic assessment of water scarcity risk in the Lower Brahmaputra River Basin: an integrated approach. Ecol Indic 48:120–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gain AK, Giupponi C, Renaud FG (2012) Climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems in developing countries: a generalized framework and a feasibility study in Bangladesh. Water 4:345–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gain AK, Mojtahed V, Biscaro C, Balbi S, Giupponi C (2015) An integrated approach of flood risk assessment in the eastern part of Dhaka City. Nat Hazards 79:1499–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gao X, Zhang SQ, Ye BS, Gao HK (2011) Recent changes of glacier runoff in the Hexi inland river basin. Adv Water Sci 22(3):345–349 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Gao Y, Feng Q, Li ZS et al (2014) Potential evaporation in the Taolaihe River basin during 1957-2012. J Desert Res 34(4):1125–1132 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Giupponi C, Mojtahed V, Gain AK, Biscaro C, Balbi S (2015) Integrated risk assessment of water-related disasters. In: Shroder JF (ed) Hydro-meteorological hazards, risks and disasters. Elsevier, Boston, pp 163–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gleick PH (2015) On methods for assessing water-resource risks and vulnerabilities. Environ Res Lett 10:11003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hagg W, Braun LN, Kuhn M, Nesgaard TI (2007) Modeling of hydrological response to climate change in glacierized Central Asian catchments. J Hydrol 332:40–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamouda MA, Nour El-Din MM, Moursy FI (2009) Vulnerability Assessment of Water Resources Systems in the Eastern Nile Basin. Water Resour Manag 23:2697–2725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. He C, DeMarchi C, Croley II et al (2009) Modeling the hydrology of the Heihe watershed in Northwestern China. J Glaciol Geocryol 31:420–421 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Huai BJ, Li ZQ, Su MP et al (2014) RS analysis of glaciers change in the Heihe River Basin in the last 50 years. Acta Geograph Sin 69(3):366–369 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Huss M, Hock G (2018) Global-scale hydrological response to future glacier mass loss. Nat Clim Chang 8:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. IPCC (2013) Summary for policymakers. In: Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker T.F. et al.]. Cambridge University Press, 2013Google Scholar
  31. Jäger J, Bohunovsky L, Giljum S et al (2008) Our planet: how much more can earth take? Haus Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Karthe D, Chalov S, Borchardt D (2015) Water resources and their management in Central Asia in the early 21st century: status, challenges and future prospects. Environ Earth Sci 73(2):487–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li H (2014) Water quality assessment and trend analysis in the Black River Basin. Master’s degree thesis in Lanzhou University of Technology. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  34. Li X, Lu L, Cheng GD, Xiao H (2001) Quantifying landscape structure of the Heihe River Basin, north-west China using FRAGSTATS. J Arid Environ 48:521–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu JG, Yang W (2012) Water sustainability for China and beyond. Science 337:649–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Martensa P, McEvoya D, Chang C (2009) The climate change challenge: linking vulnerability, adaptation, and mitigation. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 1(1):14–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mi LN, Xiao HL, Zhu WJ et al (2015) Dynamic variation of the groundwater level in the middle reaches of the Heihe River during 1985-2013. J Glaciol Geocryol 37(2):461–469 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  38. Nian Y, Li X, Zhou J, Hu XL (2014) Impact of land use change on water resource allocation in northwestern China. J Arid Land 6(3):273–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nian YY, Wang XL, Cai DH (2015) Analysis on climate and ecological environment change in the Ejin Delta, the lower reaches of the Heihe River. J Arid Meteorol 33(1):28–37 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. Nuttle WK, Fletcher PJ (2013) Integrated conceptual ecosystem model development for the Florida Keys/Dry Tortugas Coastal Marine Ecosystem. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Silver Springs, p 28Google Scholar
  41. Odermatt S (2004) Evaluation of mountain case studies by means of sustainability variables: a DPSIR model as an evaluation tool in the context of the north-south discussion. Mt Res Dev 24:336–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Padowski JC, Gorelick SM, Thompson BH, Rozelle S, Fendorf S (2015) Assessment of human–natural system characteristics influencing global fresh water supply vulnerability. Environ Res Lett 10:104014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peng JJ, Liu Q, Wang LZ, Liu Q, Fan W, Lu M, Wen J (2015) Characterizing the pixel footprint of satellite albedo products derived from MODIS reflectance in the Heihe River Basin, China. Remote Sens 7:6886–6907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rapport DJ, Singh A (2006) An eco-health based framework for status of environment reporting. Ecol Indic 6(2):409–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reynolds JF, Smith DMS, Lambin EF, Turner BL, Mortimore M, Batterbury SPJ, Downing TE, Dowlatabadi H, Fernandez RJ, Herrick JE, Huber-Sannwald E, Jiang H, Leemans R, Lynam T, Maestre FT, Ayarza M, Walker B (2007) Global desertification: building a science for dryland development. Science 316:847–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sadoff CW, Hall JW, Grey D et al (2015) Securing water, sustaining growth, report of the Global Water Partnership (GWP)/OECD Task Force on Water Security and Sustainable Growth. University of Oxford, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. Simonovic SP (2009) Managing water resources: methods and tools for a systems approach. UNESCO and Earthscan, Paris and LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. Statistical Bureau of Zhangye City (1980–2015) Statistical yearbook of Zhangye City. China Statistics Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  49. Turner BL, Kasperson RE, Matson P et al (2003) A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100(14):8074–8079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Van Loon AF (2015) Hydrological drought explained. WIREs Water 2:359–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vicente-Serrano SM, Beguería S, López-Moreno JI (2010) A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. J Clim 23:1696–1718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang F, Niu J (2016) The implication of climate signal for precipitation in the Heihe River basin, Northwest China. Adv Meteorol 4:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1078617
  53. Wang SJ, He YQ, Zhao CZ (2008) Optimized allocation and sustainable utilization of water resources in the inland river basin of northwest regions take Minqin County in Shi Yang River Basin as a case. Res Soil Water Conserv 15(5):22–29 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  54. Wang XJ, Zhang JY, Shahid S et al (2012) Water resources management strategy for adaptation to droughts in China. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 17(8):923–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang JD, Song CQ, Reager JT, Yao F, Famiglietti JS, Sheng Y, MacDonald GM, Brun F, Schmied HM, Marston RA, Wada Y (2018) Recent global decline in endorheic basin water storages. Nat Geosci 11:926–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wu F, Zhan J, Zhang Q, Sun Z, Wang Z (2014) Evaluating impacts of industrial transformation on water consumption in the Heihe river basin of Northwest China. Sustainability 6:8283–8296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Xie YW, Li LL, Zhao XJ, Yuan CX (2012) Temporal-spatial changes of the oasis in the Heihe River Basin over the past 25 years. In: Ghenai C (ed) Sustainable development-education, business and management-architecture and building construction-agriculture and food security. InTech, Rijeka, pp 313–340Google Scholar
  58. Xu HJ, Yang TB, Chai SH (2014) Variation characteristics of the mountainous runoff and its driving forces in the upper reaches of the Taolaihe River during 1961-2010. J Desert Res 34(3):878–884 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  59. Ye BS, Ding YJ, Liu FJ et al (2003) Responses of various sized alpine glaciers and runoff to climate change. J Glaciol 49(164):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhao XJ (2012) Study on the spatio-temporal characteristics of oasisization in the reaches of Heihe river basin from 1949 to 2009. Master’s degree thesis in Lanzhou University. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  61. Zhao Q, Huang WD (2015) Analysis and evaluation on effect of water integrated regulation and comprehensive river basin management of Heihe River. Yellow River 37(8):60–63 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  62. Ziad AM, Amjad A (2009) Intrinsic vulnerability, hazard and risk mapping for karst aquifers: a case study. J Hydrol 364(3–4):298–310Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and ResourcesChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing of Gansu Province, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and ResourcesChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations