Measurement Techniques

, Volume 61, Issue 8, pp 767–773 | Cite as

Issues of Back-Up and Control in an Ensemble of Atomic Clocks Based on Hydrogen Masers

  • K. G. MishaginEmail author
  • A. A. Belyaev
  • N. S. Arkhipov
  • V. A. Lysenko
  • S. Yu. Medvedev

Issues in the output signal generation of an atomic clock ensemble and the smooth management of the time scale are considered. Special algorithms are proposed to solve the objectives, making it possible to improve the stability of the output signals against possible reference frequency signal jumps. The operation of the algorithms is demonstrated by means of numerical modeling.


hydrogen maser ensemble of atomic clocks time scale frequency instability 


  1. 1.
    I. Blinov, Yu. Domnin, S. Donchenko, A. Goncharov, N. Koshelyaevsky, V. Kostromin, I. Noretz, and Yu. Smirnov, “Progress at the State Time and Frequency Standard of Russia,” Proc. 45th Ann. Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting, Bellevue, Dec. 2–5, 2013.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. I. Boiko and O. V. Kupalova, “An ensemble of hydrogen generators for the principal maser as a ‘virtual fountain’,” in Metrology of Time and Space: Proc. VII Intl. Sympos., VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (2014), pp. 53–54.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. A. Belyaev, N. A. Demidov, S. Yu. Medvedev, A. V. Pastukhov, B. A. Sakhorov, and I. Yu. Blinov, “Facilities for custodians of hydrogen masers of ensembles of atomic clocks,” Vestn. Metrologa, No. 2, 14–23 (2015).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Stephen, “USNO report to the CGSIC Timing Subcommittee,” 54th Meeting of the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee, Washington, Sept. 8–9, 2014,, acc. 07.02.2018.
  5. 5.
    N. S. Kardashev et al., “Radioastron – a 300,000 km telescope: key parameters and first results of observations,” Astronom. Zh., 90, No. 3, 179–222 (2013), DOI: Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Droz, P. Mosset, Q. Wang, P. Rochat, M. Belloni, M. Gioia, A. Resti, and P. Waller, “Space passive hydrogen Maser – performances and lifetime data,” Proc. Joint 2009 European Frequency and Time Forum & 2009. IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, Besangon, France, April 20–24, 2009, pp. 393–398, DOI:
  7. 7.
    J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, Ph. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE T. Ultrason. Ferr., 59, No. 3, 391–420 (2012), DOI: Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Le Targat et al., “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nature Comm., 4, No. 2109, 1–9 (2013), DOI: Scholar
  9. 9.
    I. N. Chernyshev, A. A. Belyaev, and K. G. Mishagin, “Error in measurement of frequency instability by method of three oscillators,” Izmer. Tekhn., 7, 37–41 (2012).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Mishagin, S. D. Podogova, I. N. Chernyshev, and S. Yu. Medvedev, “Algorithm for generating the output signal of a group frequency reference,” Izmer. Tekhn., No. 8, 34–38 (2013).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    I. N. Chernyshev and K. G. Mishagin, “Optimal measurement of frequency instability in a multichannel comparator,” Izmer. Tekhn., 9, 13–17 (2009).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Athans, “The role and use of the stochastic linear-quadratic-Gaussian problem in control system design,” Trans. Automatic Control AC-16, 16, 529–552 (1971), DOI: Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Koppang and R. Leland, “Linear quadratic stochastic control of atomic hydrogen masers,” IEEE T. Ultrason. Ferr., 46, No. 3, 517–522 (1999), DOI: Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. A. Koppang, “State space control of frequency standards,” Metrologia, 53, No. 3, R60 (2016), DOI: Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Farina, M. Galleani, and P. Tavella, “A control theory approach to clock steering techniques,” IEEE T. Ultrason. Ferr., 57, No. 10, 2257–2270 (2010), DOI: Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. G. Mishagin
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. A. Belyaev
    • 1
  • N. S. Arkhipov
    • 1
  • V. A. Lysenko
    • 1
  • S. Yu. Medvedev
    • 1
  1. 1.Vremya-Ch CompanyNizhnii NovgorodRussia

Personalised recommendations