Mitochondrial oxidative stress-induced brain and hippocampus apoptosis decrease through modulation of caspase activity, Ca2+ influx and inflammatory cytokine molecular pathways in the docetaxel-treated mice by melatonin and selenium treatments
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Docetaxel (DOCE) is widely used to treat several types of glioblastoma. Adverse effects DOCE seriously limit its clinical use in several tissues. Its side effects on brain cortex and hippocampus have not been clarified yet. Limited data indicated a protective effect of melatonin (MLT) and selenium (SELEN) on DOCE-induced apoptosis, Ca2+ influx and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several tissues except brain and hippocampus. The purpose of this study is to discover the protective effect of MLT and SELEN on DOCE-induced brain and hippocampus oxidative toxicity in mice. MLT and SELEN pretreatments significantly ameliorated acute DOCE-induced mitochondrial ROS production in the hippocampus and brain tissues by reducing levels of lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, while increasing levels of total antioxidant status, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, MLT, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, vitamin A, vitamin C and β-carotene in the tissues. Furthermore, MLT and SELEN pretreatments increased cell viability and TRPM2 channel activation in the hippocampus and brain followed by decreased activations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and caspase −3 and − 9, suggesting a suppression of calcium ion influx, apoptosis and inflammation responses. However, modulator role of SELEN on the values in the tissues is more significant than in the MLT treatment. MLT and SELEN prevent DOCE-induced hippocampus and brain injury by inhibiting mitochondrial ROS and cellular apoptosis through regulating caspase −3 and − 9 activation signaling pathways. MLT and SELEN may serve as potential therapeutic targets against DOCE-induced toxicity in the hippocampus and brain.
KeywordsApoptosis Docetaxel Hippocampus Inflammation Melatonin Mitochondrial oxidative cytotoxicity
Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
human embryonic kidney 293
mitochondrial membrane potential
poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1
polyunsaturated fatty acid
reactive oxygen species
total antioxidant status
tumor necrosis factor alpha
transient receptor potential
transient receptor potential 2
The authors wish to thanks Dr. Bilal Çiğ for helping cytokine analyses, and technicians Musa Şimşek, Hulusi Gül and Fatih Şahin (BSN Health, Analysis and Innovation Ltd. Inc. Teknokent, Isparta, Turkey) for the helping the animal experiments, laser confocal microscope, HPLC and antioxidant analyses. Abstract of the current study will be presented in the 4th International Brain Research School, 24-30 June 2019, Isparta, Turkey (http://2019.brs.org.tr/).
ZSA and MN formulated the present hypothesis. MN was responsible for writing the report. MN and KE were responsible analyzing the spectrophotometer and plate reader. ZSA and KE made also critical revision for the manuscript.
The study was supported by BSN Health, Analysis and Innovation Ltd. Inc. Teknokent, Isparta, Turkey (Project No: 2018-10). There is no financial disclosure for the current study.
Compliance with ethical standards
None of the authors have any to disclose. All authors approved the final manuscript.
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