Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, biochemical parameters and symptoms of depression and anxiety in healthy individuals
- 23 Downloads
Growing evidence support the role of vitamin D in brain function and behavior. This study investigated the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] levels, biochemical profile and symptoms of depression and anxiety in healthy individuals. Symptoms of depression were assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety was evaluated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Our sample included 36 individuals, mostly women 27(75%), 36.39 ± 9.72 years old, non-smokers 31(86.1%), body mass index of 26.57 ± 3.92 kg/m2, 27.95 ± 7.50% body fat. Participants were divided into those with 25(OH)D3 levels lower than 40 ng/mL (mean 28.16 ± 7.07) and equal or higher than 40 ng/mL (mean 53.19 ± 6.32). Those with lower 25(OH)D3 had higher levels of triacylglycerol, triacylglycerol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, high glucose and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. No changes were observed in sociodemographic variables, body composition, inflammatory parameters and cortisol. Additionally, in the groups with low and high 25(OH)D3 levels, STAI state, STAI trait and BDI scores were not statistically different. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were inversely and independently associated with glucose and HOMA-IR, but not associated with triacylglycerol, depression and anxiety scores. Lower levels of 25(OH)D3 were associated with dysfunction in glucose metabolism but not with depression and anxiety in healthy individuals.
KeywordsAnxiety Depression Glucose Lipid profile Vitamin D
Beck Depression Inventory
body mass index
central nervous system
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
homeostatic model assessment of beta cells function
homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance
high density lipoprotein
low density lipoprotein
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Statistical Program for Social Sciences
This study was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior (CAPES). MPK and ALSR are CNPq Research Fellows.
M.P.K and A.L.R. were involved in the conception and design of the study and drafting of the manuscript; G.A. and G.A.S.C. were responsible for acquisition and analysis of data and drafting the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Biaggio AM, Natalício L, Spielberger CD (1977) Desenvolvimento da forma experimental em português do Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado (IDATE) de Spielberger. Arq Bras Psic Apl 29:31–41Google Scholar
- Féron F, Burne TH, Brown J et al (2005) Developmental vitamin D3 deficiency alters the adult rat brain. Brain Res Bull 65:141–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2004.12.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jiang P, Zhang WY, Li HD, Cai HL, Xue Y (2013) Repeated haloperidol administration has no effect on vitamin D signaling but increase retinoid X receptors and Nur77 expression in rat prefrontal cortex. Cell Mol Neurobiol 33:309–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10571-012-9902-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kalueff AV, Lou YR, Ilkka L et al (2004) Increased anxiety in mice lacking vitamin D receptor gene. NeuroReport 15:1271–1274. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.wnr.0000129370.04248.92 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kampmann U, Mosekilde L, Juhl C, Moller N, Christensen B, Rejnmark L, Wamberg L, Orskov L (2014) Effects of 12 weeks high dose vitamin D3 treatment on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function and metabolic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes and vitamin D insufficiencya double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Metabolism 63:1115–1124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2014.06.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kayaniyil S, Vieth R, Retnakaran R, Knight JA, Qi Y, Gerstein HC, Perkins BA, Harris SB, Zinman B, Hanley AJ (2010) Association of vitamin D with insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 33:1379–1381. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-2321 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Maki KC, Fulgoni VL, Keast DR, Rains TM (2012) Vitamin D intake and status are associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults: National Health and nutrition examination surveys 2003–2006. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 10:363–372. https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2012.0020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moritz B, Schwarzbold ML, Guarnieri R, Diaz AP, Rodrigues ALS, Dafre AL (2017) Effects of ascorbic acid on anxiety state and affect in a non-clinical sample. Acta Neurobiol Exp 77:362–372Google Scholar
- Nikooyeh B, Neyestani TR, Farvid M, Alavi-Majd H, Houshiarrad A, Kalayi A, Shariatzadeh N, Gharavi A’, Heravifard S, Tayebinejad N, Salekzamani S, Zahedirad M (2011) Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D+ calcium fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 93:764–771. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.110.007336 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schöttker B, Haug U, Schomburg L, Köhrle J, Perna L, Müller H, Holleczek B, Brenner H (2013) Strong associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality in a large cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 97:782–793. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.047712 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shaffer JA, Edmondson D, Wasson LT, Falzon L, Homma K, Ezeokoli N, Li P, Davidson KW (2014) Vitamin D supplementation for depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychosom Med 76:190–196. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000044 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE (1970) Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
- Tsur A, Feldman BS, Feldhammer I, Hoshen MB, Leibowitz G, Balicer RD (2013) Decreased serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol are associated with increased risk of progression to impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. Diabetes Care 36(5):1361-7. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-1050.
- Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Ingelsson E, Lanier K, Benjamin EJ, D’Agostino RB, Wolf M, Vasan RS (2008) Vitamin D deficiency and Risc of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 117, 503-511-controlled trial. Metabolism 63:1115–1124. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.706127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Williams JA, Romero VC, Clinton CM, Vazquez DM, Marcus SM, Chilimigras JL, Hamilton SE, Allbaugh LJ, Vahratian AM, Schrader RM, Mozurkewich EL (2016) Vitamin D levels and perinatal depressive symptoms in women at risk: a secondary analysis of the mothers, omega-3, and mental health study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 16:203. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-016-0988-7 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar