Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, biochemical parameters and symptoms of depression and anxiety in healthy individuals

  • Gleicilaine A. S. Casseb
  • Gabriela Ambrósio
  • Ana Lúcia S. Rodrigues
  • Manuella P. Kaster
Original Article


Growing evidence support the role of vitamin D in brain function and behavior. This study investigated the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] levels, biochemical profile and symptoms of depression and anxiety in healthy individuals. Symptoms of depression were assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety was evaluated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Our sample included 36 individuals, mostly women 27(75%), 36.39 ± 9.72 years old, non-smokers 31(86.1%), body mass index of 26.57 ± 3.92 kg/m2, 27.95 ± 7.50% body fat. Participants were divided into those with 25(OH)D3 levels lower than 40 ng/mL (mean 28.16 ± 7.07) and equal or higher than 40 ng/mL (mean 53.19 ± 6.32). Those with lower 25(OH)D3 had higher levels of triacylglycerol, triacylglycerol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, high glucose and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. No changes were observed in sociodemographic variables, body composition, inflammatory parameters and cortisol. Additionally, in the groups with low and high 25(OH)D3 levels, STAI state, STAI trait and BDI scores were not statistically different. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were inversely and independently associated with glucose and HOMA-IR, but not associated with triacylglycerol, depression and anxiety scores. Lower levels of 25(OH)D3 were associated with dysfunction in glucose metabolism but not with depression and anxiety in healthy individuals.


Anxiety Depression Glucose Lipid profile Vitamin D 



25-hydroxyvitamin D3


1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3


Beck Depression Inventory


body mass index


central nervous system


C-reactive protein


Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay


homeostatic model assessment of beta cells function


homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance


high density lipoprotein


low density lipoprotein


standard deviation


State-Trait Anxiety Inventory


Statistical Program for Social Sciences



This study was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior (CAPES). MPK and ALSR are CNPq Research Fellows.

Author contributions

M.P.K and A.L.R. were involved in the conception and design of the study and drafting of the manuscript; G.A. and G.A.S.C. were responsible for acquisition and analysis of data and drafting the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil

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