Leptin stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in hypothalamic astrocyte cultures from adult and aged rats
Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that acts on the hypothalamus in order to maintain energy homeostasis. However, leptin can also induce an inflammatory response. Increasing evidence has highlighted a critical role of astrocytes in the effects of leptin on the hypothalamus. In addition, astrocytes participate in neuroinflammation by producing and releasing a wide range of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we aimed to investigate the age-dependent effect of leptin on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines released by the hypothalamic astrocyte cultures obtained from newborn, adult, and aged Wistar rats. In hypothalamic astrocytes from newborn rats, leptin did not change the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). On the other contrary, leptin increased the release of both TNF-α and IL-1β in astrocyte cultures from adult and aged animals. Regarding the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10), we did not observe any change in response to leptin. In conclusion, our data suggests a pro-inflammatory action of leptin on the hypothalamus during aging. This in turn may be related to the triggering of metabolic disorders, as both of these conditions are associated with neuroinflammation.
KeywordsAstrocytes Hypothalamus Leptin Inflammatory response
This study was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, and Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia para Excitotoxicidade e Neuroproteção (INCTEN/CNPq).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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