Alteration in cognitive behaviour, brain antioxidant enzyme activity and their gene expression in F1 generation mice, following Cd exposure during the late gestation period: modulation by quercetin
- 58 Downloads
We investigated whether in-utero Cd(II) chloride exposure of the dams between 14th to 21st day of gestation affects memory and learning, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activity and their gene expression in brain of the pups in their adulthood. In the Morris water maze, cadmium (Cd) exposure impaired spatial memory which was reversed following co-treatment with quercetin (100 mg/kg). In the passive avoidance paradigm, retention memory was adversely affected but was significantly reversed by co treatment with quercetin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg). The malondialdehyde and catalase (CAT) levels and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity were increased significantly in Cd-treated group, but were reversed by quercetin (all doses). The gene expression for CAT and GST in brain tissue of Cd treated animals also increased many folds as compared to the control, and this effect was decreased on co-treatment with quercetin (all doses), thus matching with the respective enzyme activities. Quercetin (25 mg/kg) when co-treated with Cd caused a decrease in GST activity compared to control, which points towards a complex interplay with oxidative free radicals and promoters and transcription factors. Thus, Cd exposure during late gestation causes impaired spatial and retention memory in the next generation which may be due to alteration of activity as well as gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes, CAT and GST. Quercetin may offer some protection of memory impairment probably by modulating these effects.
KeywordsMorris water maze Passive avoidance paradigm Catalase Glutathione-S-transferase RT-PCR
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest.
- Batool Z, Agha F, Ahmad S, Liaquat L, Tabassum S, Khaliq S, Anis L, Sajid I, Emad S, Perveen T, Haider S (2017) Attenuation of cadmium-induced decline in spatial, habituation and recognition memory by long-term administration of almond andwalnut supplementation: role of cholinergic function. Pak J Pharm Sci 30(1 Suppl):273–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen JY, Lee YM, Zhao D, Mak NK, Wong RN, Chan WH, Cheung NH (2010) Quantumdot-mediated photoproduction of reactive oxygen species for cancer cellannihilation. PhotochemPhotobiol 86:431–437Google Scholar
- Dokumacioglu E, Iskender H, Yenice G, Kapakin KAT, Sevim C, Hayirli A, Saral S, Comakli S (2018) Effects of astaxanthin on biochemical and histopathological parameters related to oxidative stress on testes of rats on high fructose regime Andrologiae 13042Google Scholar
- Gallegos CE, Baier CJ, Bartos M, Bras C, Domínguez S, Mónaco N, Gumilar F, Giménez MS, Minetti A (2018) Perinatal glyphosate-based herbicide exposure in rats alters brain antioxidant status, glutamate and acetylcholine metabolism and affects recognition memory. Neurotox Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12640-018-9894-2 [Epub ahead of print]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Luck H (1974) Estimation of catalase activity. In: Bergmeyer U (ed) methods of enzymology., academic press New York: 885Google Scholar
- Ognjanovic B, Markovic S, Dordevic N et al (2010) Cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidant defense system in the rat testes: protective role of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E. ReprodToxicol 29:191–197Google Scholar
- Pinto A, Bonucci A, Maggi E, Corsi M, Businaro R (2018)Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of ketogenic diet: new perspectives for neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease. Antioxidants (Basel)7,pii: E63Google Scholar
- Scholten SD, Sergeev IN (2013) Long-term quercetin supplementation reduces lipidperoxidation but does not improve performance in endurance runners. J Sports Med 12:53–61Google Scholar
- Sillapawattana P, Schäffer A (2016) Effects of imidacloprid on detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase on Folsomia candida (Collembola). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Apr 20 [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27094278Google Scholar