Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neurotoxicity induced by clindamycin and propionic acid in juvenile hamsters
The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of probiotics on brain intoxication induced by clindamycin and propionic acid (PPA) in hamsters. Fifty golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into five experimental groups of ten animals each: (A) control group receiving phosphate buffered saline; (B) oral buffered PPA-treated group being administered with a neurotoxic dose of 250 mg/kg PPA during three days; (C) oral clindamycin-treated group receiving a single dose of 30 mg clindamycin/kg; and (D, E) the two therapeutic groups being administered the same doses of clindamycin and PPA followed by probiotics for three weeks at a daily dose of 0.2 g/kg. Biochemical parameters of energy metabolism and oxidative stress were examined in brain homogenates from all hamsters. The development of pathogenic bacteria was monitored on stool samples from all hamsters. Descriptive changes in fecal microbiota and overgrowth of Clostridium species in clindamycin and PPA treated hamsters were recorded. Interestingly, probiotics were shown effective to restore normal gut microbiota. Clindamycin and PPA treatments caused an elevation in lipid peroxidation and catalase activity, as oxidative stress markers, together with a reduction in GST activity and GSH level. Energy metabolism impairment was ascertained via the activation of creatine kinase and a decrease of lactate dehydrogenase. These findings suggest that bacteria overgrowth caused by PPA and clindamycin was efficient to illustrate signs of neuronal toxicity. The present study indicates that probiotic treatment can improve poor detoxification, oxidative stress, and altered gut microbiota as mechanisms implicated in the etiology of many neurological disorders.
KeywordsBacterial overgrowth Clindamycin Oxidative stress Propionic acid
area under the curve
Sheep Blood Agar plate
center nerves system
enteric nervous system
electron transport chain
Receiver Operating Characteristics
reactive oxygen species
Short-Chain Fatty Acids
Sabouroud Dextrose agar
This research project was supported by a grant from the Research Center of the Female Scientific and Medical Colleges, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship, and/or publication of this article.
This study was ethically approved by the Ethical Committee, College of Science, King Saud University.
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