Southern Brazilian native fruit shows neurochemical, metabolic and behavioral benefits in an animal model of metabolic syndrome
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In this work, we evaluated the effects of Psidium cattleianum (Red Type) (PcRT) fruit extract on metabolic, behavioral, and neurochemical parameters in rats fed with a highly palatable diet (HPD) consisted of sucrose (65% carbohydrates being 34% from condensed milk, 8% from sucrose and 23% from starch, 25% protein and 10% fat). Animals were divided into 4 groups: standard chow, standard chow + PcRT extract (200 mg/Kg/day by gavage), HPD, HPD + extract. The animals were treated for 150 days. Concerning chemical profiling, LC/PDA/MS/MS analysis revealed cyanidin-3-O-glucoside as the only anthocyanin in the PcRT extract. Our results showed that the animals exposed to HPD presented glucose intolerance, increased weight gain and visceral fat, as well as higher serum levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and interleukin-6. These alterations were prevented by PcRT. In addition, HPD caused an increase in immobility time in a forced swimming test and the fruit extract prevented this alteration, indicating an antidepressant-like effect. PcRT treatment also prevented increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the prefrontal cortex caused by HPD consumption. Moreover, PcRT extract was able to restore Ca2+-ATPase activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, as well as Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. PcRT treatment decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, nitrite, and reactive oxygen species levels and prevented the reduction of superoxide dismutase activity in all cerebral structures of the HPD group. Additionally, HPD decreased catalase in the hippocampus and striatum. However, the extract prevented this change in the hippocampus. Our results showed that this berry extract has antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects, and neuroprotective properties, proving to be a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with metabolic syndrome.
KeywordsMetabolic syndrome Highly palatable diet P. cattleianum Natural products Phenolic compounds Neuroprotection
The Brazilian research funding agencies FAPERGS, CAPES and CNPq supported this study. We also thank Dr. Felipe Dal-Pizzol (Laboratory of Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Brazil) for providing the kit to measure IL-6.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest in this study.
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