Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 461, Issue 1–2, pp 141–150 | Cite as

Effects of different dietary regimes alone or in combination with standardized Aronia melanocarpa extract supplementation on lipid and fatty acids profiles in rats

  • Petar Milic
  • Jovana Jeremic
  • Vladimir Zivkovic
  • Ivan Srejovic
  • Nevena Jeremic
  • Jovana Bradic
  • Tamara Nikolic Turnic
  • Isidora Milosavljevic
  • Sergey Bolevich
  • Stefani Bolevich
  • Milica Labudovic Borovic
  • Aleksandra Arsic
  • Miroslav Mitrovic
  • Vladimir JakovljevicEmail author
  • Vesna Vucic


This study investigated different dietary strategies, high-fat (HFd), or standard diet (Sd) alone or in combination with standardized Aronia melanocarpa extract (SAE), as a polyphenol-rich diet, and their effects on lipids and fatty acids (FA) in rats with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into two groups: healthy and rats with MetS, and then depending on dietary patterns on six groups: healthy rats fed with Sd, healthy rats fed with Sd and SAE, rats with MetS fed with HFd, rats with MetS fed with HFd and SAE, rats with MetS fed with Sd, and rats with MetS fed with Sd and SAE. 4 weeks later, after an overnight fast (12–14 h), blood for determination of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), index of lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS), and FA was collected. Increased FA and lipid concentration found in MetS rats were reduced when changing dietary habits from HFd to Sd with or without SAE consumption. Consumption of SAE slightly affects the FA profiles, mostly palmitoleic acid in healthy rats and PUFA in MetS + HFd rats. Nevertheless, in a high-fat diet, SAE supplementation significantly decreases n-6/n-3 ratio, thereby decreasing systemic inflammation. Further researches are warranted to confirm these effects in humans.


Aronia melanocarpa Fatty acids Lipid profiles Metabolic syndrome Dietary pattern 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was conducted in the laboratory for Cardiovascular Physiology (Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Serbia). Animals treatment and protocol employed were approved by the Ethical Committee for the welfare of experimental animals of the Faculty of Medical Sciences at the University of Kragujevac, Serbia on July 30, 2017 (number: 119-01-5/14/2017-09). The experimental procedures have been carried out in accordance with the EU Directive for the welfare of laboratory animals (86/609/EEC) and the principles of Good Laboratory Practice.


  1. 1.
    Kaur JA (2014) Comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Res Prac. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grundy SM (2016) Metabolic syndrome update. Trends Cardiovasc Med 26:364–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nestel P (2003) Metabolic syndrome: multiple candidate genes, multiple environmental factors—multiple syndromes? Int J Clin Pract 134:3–9Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brown L, Poudyal H, Panchal SK (2015) Functional foods as potential therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome. Obes Rev 16:914–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Salas-Salvado J, Estruch R et al (2015) Benefits of the Mediterranean diet: insights from the PREDIMED study. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 58:50–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rangel-Huerta OD, Pastor-Villaescusa B, Aguilera CM, Gil A (2015) A systematic review of the efficacy of bioactive compounds in cardiovascular disease: phenolic compounds. Nutrients 7:5177–5216PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Borowska S, Brzoska MM (2016) Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) and their products as a possible means for the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases and unfavorable health effects due to exposure to xenobiotics. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 15:982–1017Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hakkinen SH, Karenlampi SO, Heinonen IM, Mykkanen HM, Torronen AR (1999) Content of the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in 25 edible berries. J Agric Food Chem 47:2274–2279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Daskalova E, Delchev S, Peeva Y et al (2015) Antiatherogenic and cardioprotective effects of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice in aging rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015:717439PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rodriguez-Mateos A, Heiss C, Borges G, Crozier A (2013) Berry (poly) phenols and cardiovascular health. J Agric Food Chem 62:3842–3851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jakovljevic V, Milic P, Bradic J et al (2019) Standardized Aronia melanocarpa extract as novel supplement against metabolic syndrome: a rat model. Int J Mol Sci 20:6Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Orcic D, Franciskovic M, Bekvalac K et al (2014) Performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Food Chem 143:48–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Suman RK, Ray Mohanty I, Borde MK, Maheshwari U, Deshmukh YA (2016) Development of an experimental model of diabetes co-existing with metabolic syndrome in rats. Adv Pharmacol Sci. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Skovsø S (2014) Modeling type 2 diabetes in rats using high fat diet and streptozotocin. J Diabetes Investig 5(4):349–358PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Srinivasan K, Viswanad B, Asrat L, Kaul CL, Ramarao P (2005) Combination of high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-treated rat: a model for type 2 diabetes and pharmacological screening. Pharmacol Res 52:313–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K (1979) Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95:351–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Glaser C, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B (2010) High-throughput analysis of total plasma fatty acid composition with direct in situ transesterification. PLoS ONE 5:e12045PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aristizabal JC, Barona J, Gonzalez-Zapata LI, Deossa GC, Estrada A (2016) Fatty acid content of plasma triglycerides may contribute to the heterogeneity in the relationship between abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat D 14:311–317Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Poreba R, Skoczynska A, Gac P et al (2009) Drinking of chokeberry juice from the ecological farm Dzieciolowo and distensibility of brachial artery in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Ann Agric Environ Med 16:305–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Broncel M, Kozirog M, Duchnowicz P, Koter-Michalak M, Sikora J, Chojnowska-Jezierska J (2010) Aronia melanocarpa extract reduces blood pressure, serum endothelin, lipid, and oxidative stress marker levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Monit 16:CR28–CR34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mitra SK, Gopumadhavan S, Muralidhar TS, Anturlikar SD, Sujatha MB (1995) Effect of D-400, a herbomineral preparation on lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin and glucose tolerance in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 33:798–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Valcheva-Kuzmanova S, Kuzmanov K, Mihova V, Krasnaliev I, Borisova P, Belcheva A (2007) Antihyperlipidemic effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 62:19–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Qin B, Anderson RA (2012) An extract of chokeberry attenuates weight gain and modulates insulin, adipogenic and inflammatory signalling pathways in epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed a fructose-rich diet. Brit J Nutr 108:581–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Duchnowicz P, Nowicka A, Koter-Michalak M, Broncel M (2012) In vivo influence of extract from Aronia melanocarpa on the erythrocyte membranes in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Med Sci Monit 8:CR569–CR574Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Broncel M, Kozirog M, Duchnowicz P, Koter-Michalak M, Sikora J, Chojnowska-Jezierska J (2010) Aronia melanocarpa extract reduces blood pressure, serum endothelin, lipid, and oxidative stress marker levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Monit 16:CR28–CR34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Devi R, Sharma DK (2004) Hypolipidemic effect of different extracts of Clerodendron colebrookianum Walp in normal and high-fat diet fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol 90:63–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gnoni GV, Paglialonga G (2009) Resveratrol inhibits fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in rat hepatocytes. Eur J Clin Invest 39:211–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parhofer KG (2015) Interaction between glucose and lipid metabolism: more than diabetic dyslipidemia. Diabetes Metab J 39:353–362PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ziaee A, Zamansoltani F, Nassiri-Asl M, Abbasi E (2009) Effects of rutin on lipid profile in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 104:253–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Choi I, Park Y, Choi H, Lee EH (2006) Anti-adipogenic activity of rutin in 3T3-L1 cells and mice fed with high-fat diet. BioFactors 26:273–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kawser Hossain M, Abdal Dayem A, Han J et al (2016) Molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties of flavonoids. Int J Mol Sci 17:569PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stern JH, Rutkowski JM, Scherer PE (2016) Adiponectin, leptin, and fatty acids in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis through adipose tissue crosstalk. Cell Metab 23:770–784PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Katare C, Saxena S, Agrawal S et al (2014) Lipid-lowering and antioxidant functions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) extract in human dyslipidemia. J Evid Based Complement Altern Med 19:112–118Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kim B, Park Y, Wegner CJ, Bolling BW, Lee J (2013) Polyphenol-richblackchokeberry(Aroniamelanocarpa) extract regulates the expression of genes critical for intestinal cholesterol flux in caco-2 cells. J Nutr Biochem 24:1564–1570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kotronen A, Velagapudi VR, Yetukuri L et al (2009) Serum saturated fatty acids containing triacylglycerols are better markers of insulin resistance than total serum triacylglycerol concentrations. Diabetologia 52:684–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu TW, Heden TD, Matthew Morris E, Fritsche KL, Vieira-Potter VJ, Thyfault JP (2015) High-fat diet alters serum fatty acid profiles in obesity prone rats: implications for in vitro studies. Lipids 50:997–1008PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vucic V, Tepsic J, Arsic A, Popovic T, Debeljak-Martacic J, Glibetic M (2012) Fatty acid content of vegetable oils and assessment of their consumption in Serbia. Acta Aliment 41:343–350Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rafiei H, Omidian K, Bandy B (2019) Dietary polyphenols protect against oleic acid-induced steatosis in an in vitro model of NAFLD by modulating lipid metabolism and improving mitochondrial function. Nutrients 11:541PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Park CH, Kim JH, Lee EB et al (2018) Aronia melanocarpa extract ameliorates hepatic lipid metabolism through PPARγ2 downregulation. PLoS ONE 12:e0169685Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Warensjo E, Riserus U, Vessby B (2005) Fatty acid composition of serum lipids predicts the development of the metabolic syndrome in men. Diabetologia 48:1999–2005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bjermo H, Riserus U (2010) Role of hepatic desaturases in obesity-related metabolic disorders. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13:703–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chong MF, Hodson L, Bickerton AS et al (2008) Parallel activation of de novo lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity after 3 d of high-carbohydrate feeding. Am J Clin Nutr 87:817–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Carpentier YA, Portois L, Malaisse WJ (2006) n-3 fatty acids and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 83:1499S–1504SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Piñeiro-Corrales G, Lago Rivero N, Culebras-Fernández JM (2013) Role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention. Nutr Hosp 28:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Veselinovic M, Vasiljevic D, Vucic V et al (2017) Clinical benefits of n-3 PUFA and ɤ-linolenic acid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrients 9:325PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ristic-Medic D, Vucic V, Takic M, Karadzic I, Glibetic M (2013) Polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease. J Serb Chem Soc 78:1269Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Simopoulos AP (2013) Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and high fructose intake in the development of metabolic syndrome, brain metabolic abnormalities, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutrients 5:2901–2923PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Novgorodtseva TP, Kantur TA, Karaman YK, Antonyuk MV, Zhukova NV (2011) Modification of fatty acids composition in erythrocytes lipids in arterial hypertension associated with dyslipidemia. Lipids Health Dis 10:18PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kardum N, Takic M, Savikin K et al (2014) Effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice on cellular antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid status in healthy women. J Funct Foods 9:89–97Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Petrovic S, Arsic A, Glibetic M, Cikiriz N, Jakovljevic V, Vucic V (2016) The effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice on fatty acid profiles and lipid peroxidation of active handball players: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 94:1058–1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Peredo-Escárcega AE, Guarner-Lans V, Pérez-Torres I et al (2015) The Combination of resveratrol and quercetin attenuates metabolic syndrome in rats by modifying the serum fatty acid composition and by upregulating SIRT 1 and SIRT 2 expression in white adipose tissue. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015:474032PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Toufektsian MC, Salen P, Laporte F, Tonelli C, de Lorgeril M (2011) Dietary flavonoids increase plasma very long-chain (n-3) fatty acids in rats. J Nutr 141:37–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Graf D, Seifert S, Jaudszus A, Bub A, Watzl B (2013) Anthocyanin-rich juice lowers serum cholesterol, leptin, and resistin and improves plasma fatty acid composition in fischer rats. PLoS ONE 8:e66690PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yang B, Ding F, Yan J et al (2016) Exploratory serum fatty acid patterns associated with blood pressure in community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Lipids Health Dis 15:58PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gao M, Ma Y, Liu D (2015) High-fat diet-induced adiposity, adipose inflammation, hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia in outbred CD-1 mice. PLoS ONE 3:e0119784Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vucic V (2013) The role of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammation. SJECR 14:93–99Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Graf D, Seifert S, Jaudszus A, Bub A, Watzl B (2013) Anthocyanin-rich juice lowers serum cholesterol, leptin, and resistin and improves plasma fatty acid composition in fischer rats. PLoS ONE 8:e66690PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mayneris-Perxachs J, Guerendiain M, Castellote AI et al (2014) Plasma fatty acid composition, estimated desaturase activities, and their relation with the metabolic syndrome in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Clin Nutr 33:90–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Horrobin DF (1997) Essential fatty acids in the management of impaired nerve function in diabetes. Diabetes 46:S90–S93PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petar Milic
    • 1
  • Jovana Jeremic
    • 2
  • Vladimir Zivkovic
    • 3
  • Ivan Srejovic
    • 3
  • Nevena Jeremic
    • 2
  • Jovana Bradic
    • 2
  • Tamara Nikolic Turnic
    • 2
  • Isidora Milosavljevic
    • 2
  • Sergey Bolevich
    • 4
  • Stefani Bolevich
    • 5
  • Milica Labudovic Borovic
    • 6
  • Aleksandra Arsic
    • 7
  • Miroslav Mitrovic
    • 8
  • Vladimir Jakovljevic
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Vesna Vucic
    • 7
  1. 1.High Medical School of Professional Studies in CuprijaCuprijaSerbia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical SciencesUniversity of KragujevacKragujevacSerbia
  3. 3.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical SciencesUniversity of KragujevacKragujevacSerbia
  4. 4.Department of Human Pathology1st Moscow State Medical, University IM SechenovMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Department of Pathophysiology, 1st Moscow State MedicalUniversity IM SechenovMoscowRussia
  6. 6.Institute of Histology and Embryology “Aleksandar Dj. Kostic”, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  7. 7.Institute for Medical Research, Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, University of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  8. 8.PharmanovaBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations