The impact of aerobic and anaerobic training regimes on blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive rats: focus on redox changes
- 132 Downloads
This study was aimed to assess the impact of aerobic and anaerobic type of exercise on blood pressure and redox status in normotensive and hypertensive rats. After 1 week of preconditioning feeding and 1 week of preconditioning running regimen, Wistar albino rats (n = 72; bw: 270 ± 50 g) were randomly assigned to three groups according to running protocol (high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity training (MIT)): sedentary control, MIT, HIIT; spontaneous hypertensive sedentary control (SHR), SHR + MIT and SHR + HIIT. Blood pressure (BP) measurement was performed by a tail-cuff noninvasive method BP system. After 48 h of rest following the final training, the rats were fasted for 24 h and sacrificed under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia and blood samples were collected. The level of the next prooxidants were measured: superoxide anion radical (O2−); hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); nitrite level (NO2−) and index of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), and the activity of antioxidative enzymes: reduced glutathione (GSH) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. After the last week of running, HIIT strongly affected SP, DP, and HR in SHR rats compared to other hypertensive rats, as well as after MIT in normotensive conditions. We have found that HIIT training protocol induced a higher increase of O2− and H2O2 as compared to MIT. Findings of the present study pointed out that contrary to normotensive conditions, in hypertensive conditions both training regimes reduced the BP levels, which was more prominent in case of HIIT. In addition, MIT seems to be connected with milder disturbance of pro-oxidant production and better antioxidant response.
KeywordsHypertension HIIT MIT Heart Redox status Rat
This work was supported by Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Serbia (JP 01/15).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Farah BQ, Germano-Soares AH, Rodrigues SLC, Santos CX, Barbosa SS, Vianna LC, Cornelissen VA, Ritti-Dias RM (2017) Acute and chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular variables in hypertensive patients: a systematic review. Sports (Basel) 5(3). E55. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Hakansson S, Jones MD, Ristov M, Marcos L, Clark T, Ram A, Morey R, Franklin A, McCarthy C, Carli L, Ward R, Keech A (2018) Intensity-dependent effects of aerobic training on pressure pain threshold in overweight males: a randomised trial. Eur J Pain. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1277 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Li FH, Li T, Ai JY, Sun L, Min Z, Duan R, Zhu L, Liu YY, Liu TC (2018) Beneficial autophagic activities, mitochondrial function, and metabolic phenotype adaptations promoted by high-intensity interval training in a rat model. Front Physiol 9:571. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00571 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 6.Costa EC, Hay JL, Kehler DS, Boreskie KF, Arora RC, Umpierre D, Szwajcer A, Duhamel TA (2018) Effects of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on blood pressure in adults with pre- to established hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Sports Med. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0944-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Green DJ, Eijsvogels T, Bouts YM, Maiorana AJ, Naylor LH, Scholten RR, Spaanderman ME, Pugh CJ, Sprung VS, Schreuder T, Jones H, Cable T, Hopman MT, Thijssen DH (2014) Exercise training and artery function in humans: nonresponse and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. J Appl Physiol 117(4):345–352. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00354.2014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.González-Ruíz K, Correa-Bautista JE, Izquierdo M, García-Hermoso A, Dominguez-Sanchez MA, Bustos-Cruz RH, García-Prieto JC, Martínez-Vizcaíno V, Lobelo F, González-Jiménez E, Prieto-Benavides DH, Tordecilla-Sanders A, Schmidt-RioValle J, Perez G, Ramírez-Vélez R (2018) Effects of an exercise program on hepatic metabolism, hepatic fat, and cardiovascular health in overweight/obese adolescents from Bogotá, Colombia (the HEPAFIT study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 19(1):330. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2721-5 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Beutler E (1984) Superoxide dismutase. In: Beutler E (ed) Red cell metabolism. a manual of biochemical methods. Grune & Stratton: Philadelphia, pp 83–85Google Scholar
- 22.Carneiro-Júnior MA, Quintão-Júnior JF, Drummond LR, Lavorato VN, Drummond FR, da Cunha DN (2013) The benefits of endurance training in cardiomyocyte function in hypertensive rats are reversed within four weeks of detraining. J Mol Cell Cardiol 57:119–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2013.01.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Aro CEP, Guzmán JAR, Muñoz MES, González BEV (2015) Effects of high intensity interval training versus moderate intensity continuous training on the reduction of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic adult patients: CAT. Medwave 15(7):1–13. https://doi.org/10.5867/medwave.2015.07.6212 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Ramos JS, Dalleck LC, Tjonna AE, Beetham KS, Coombes JS (2015) The impact of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on vascular function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med 45(5):679–692. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0321-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Wewege M, van den Berg R, Ward RE, Keech A (2017) The effects of high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training on body composition in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 18(6):635–646. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12532 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Garciarena CD, Pinilla OA, Nolly MB, Laguens RP, Escudero EM, Cingolani HE (2009) Endurance training in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: conversion of pathological into physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertension 53(4):708–714. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.126805 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 34.Delwing-de Lima D, Ulbricht ASSF, Werlang-Coelho C, Delwing-Dal Magro D, Joaquim VHA, Salamaia EM, de Quevedo SR, Desordi L (2017) Effects of two aerobic exercise training protocols on parameters of oxidative stress in the blood and liver of obese rats. J Physiol Sci. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12576-017-0584-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar