Modulatory effect of 4-phenyl butyric acid on hyperoxaluria-induced renal injury and inflammation
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Hyperoxaluria-associated deposition of calcium oxalate crystals results from oxalate-induced renal injury and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of 4-Phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone, in ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria and compare its effect with antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Male Sprague–Dawley rats were given ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days to induce hyperoxaluria. 4-PBA and NAC were given by oral gavage. Effect of 4-PBA was analyzed in both prophylactic and curative regimens. After every 7 days, 24-h urine samples were analyzed for kidney injury and inflammation markers. Increased amounts of kidney injury markers like Kidney injury molecule-1, Lactate dehydrogenase, and N-acetyl-β-glucoseaminidase were found in the urine of hyperoxaluric rats which were significantly reduced by 4-PBA treatment in both prophylactic and curative regimens. Inflammatory markers IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1 were also raised in the urine of hyperoxaluric rats which were significantly decreased by 4-PBA treatment. Hyperoxaluria was accompanied with renal oxidative stress as reflected by decreased glutathione redox status and increased reactive oxygen species which was significantly reduced by 4-PBA treatment. Histological study with H&E and Pizzolato staining showed numerous calcium oxalate crystal deposits in the renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats. However, no significant crystal deposits were seen in the 4-PBA-treated hyperoxaluric rats. N-acetyl cysteine treatment effectively decreased renal oxidative stress but did not alter the production of inflammatory markers. Collectively, the present study suggested the potential protective effect of 4-PBA in hyperoxaluria-induced renal injury and inflammation.
KeywordsKidney Hyperoxaluria Nephrolithiasis 4-Phenyl butyric acid N-acetyl cysteine Oxidative stress
The financial assistance provided by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Government of India, New Delhi is gratefully acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors state no conflict of interest.
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