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Measurement of Parenting Self-efficacy Among Female HIV-Affected Caregivers in Uganda



Parenting self-efficacy has been associated with positive parenting behaviors, fewer parental mental health problems, less family dysfunction, and better child development outcomes. The parenting sense of competence (PSOC) scale is commonly used to measure parenting self-efficacy in high-resource settings. This study sought to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent construct validity of the PSOC in a sample of predominantly HIV-infected women in Uganda.


Using data from 155 HIV-affected caregivers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a parenting intervention, two and three factor models of a 16-item translated version of the PSOC were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Multivariable regression models were used to examine relationships between parenting confidence (operationalized using the best-fitting PSOC model), caregiver mental health symptoms (depression and anxiety), social support, family dysfunction, and family wealth, after adjusting for covariates.


Neither the two- nor three-factor models of the PSOC demonstrated adequate model fit; however, adequate model fit was demonstrated for a one-factor model that included only items from the PSOC efficacy subscale. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.73 for this subscale. Correlates of parenting self-efficacy in this sample included caregiver depression, family dysfunction, and family wealth, but not caregiver anxiety or social support.

Conclusions for Practice

These findings lend support for future use of the PSOC efficacy subscale among HIV-affected caregivers of children in low-resource settings such as rural Uganda.

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This research was carried out within the broader infrastructure of a study entitled “Enhancing Ugandan HIV-affected child development with caregiver training” funded by NIH (R01 HD070723, PIs: Boivin, Bass). The authors wish to thank the Global Health Uganda research team in Tororo for their assistance with data preparation.

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Correspondence to Jura L. Augustinavicius.

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Augustinavicius, J.L., Murray, S.M., Familiar-Lopez, I. et al. Measurement of Parenting Self-efficacy Among Female HIV-Affected Caregivers in Uganda. Matern Child Health J 24, 319–327 (2020).

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  • Parenting self-efficacy
  • HIV
  • Parenting sense of competence scale
  • Measurement
  • Psychometrics