Association of Maternal Depression and Anxiety Symptoms with Sleep Duration in Children at Preschool Age
- 37 Downloads
To evaluate the effect of maternal depression and anxiety symptoms on daily sleep duration in 4–5-year-old children.
Data were obtained from the PREDI Study, a larger cohort study conducted in Brazil. The current study is a cross-sectional study carried out in the homes of the participants between July 2016 and August 2017. The participants were submitted to anthropometric assessment and demographic, socioeconomic and psychological data were obtained. Total sleep time was self-reported by the women and classified as ≥ 10 or < 10 h of sleep/day. Maternal depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory, respectively.
Of the 216 children included in the study, 77.3% and 22.7% had ≥ 10 and < 10 h of sleep/day, respectively. Regarding the women, 20.0% and 19.5% had moderate/severe depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Moderate/severe symptoms of maternal depression were associated with < 10 h of sleep/day (p = 0.034). Unadjusted analysis showed that children whose mothers had moderate/severe depression symptoms were significantly more likely to sleep < 10 h/day at 4–5 years of age than those whose mothers had minimal/mild depression symptoms (OR 2.38, p = 0.037). This association continued to be significant and increased to an OR of 3.99 (p = 0.006) after adjusting for potential confounders.
Conclusions for practice
Our study showed that sleeping less than 10 h/day at preschool age was associated with moderate/severe maternal depression symptoms. These results are important from a public health perspective since strategies designed to treat depression in women with school-age children may help improve their child’s sleep quality and, consequently, his cognitive performance and related behavioral and emotional problems in the future.
KeywordsPreschoolers Sleep deprivation Depression Anxiety Preschool age
The authors thank the Darcy Vargas Maternity Hospital of Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil, for allowing the data collection at their facilities.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interests.
- Audelo, J., Kogut, K., Harley, K. G., Rosas, L. G., Stein, L., & Eskenazi, B. (2016). Maternal depression and childhood overweight in the CHAMACOS study of Mexican-American children. Maternal and Child Health Journal,20(7), 1405–1414. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-1937-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brambilla, P., Giussani, M., Pasinato, A., Venturelli, L., Privitera, F., Miraglia Del Giudice, E., et al. (2017). Sleep habits and pattern in 1-14 years old children and relationship with video devices use and evening and night child activities. Italian Journal of Pediatrics,43(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-016-0324-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- BRASIL. (1996). Lei nº 9.394, de 20 de dezembro de 1996. Estabelece as Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional. Brasília. Retrieved April 17, 2017, from http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Leis/L9394.htm.
- Chaput, J. P., Gray, C. E., Poitras, V. J., Carson, V., Gruber, R., Birken, C. S., et al. (2017). Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years). BMC Public Health,17(Suppl 5), 855. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4850-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Gomes-Oliveira, M. H., Gorenstein, C., Lotufo Neto, F., Andrade, L. H., & Wang, Y. P. (2012). Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a community sample. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria,34(4), 389–394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbp.2012.03.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gordon, C. C., Chumlea, W. C., & Roche, A. F. (1988). Stature, recumbent length, and weight. In T. G. Lohman, A. F. Roche, & R. Martorell (Eds.), Anthropometric standartization reference manual (pp. 3–8). Champaign: Human Kinetics Books.Google Scholar
- Gradisar, M., Wolfson, A. R., Harvey, A. G., Hale, L., Rosenberg, R., & Czeisler, C. A. (2013). The sleep and technology use of Americans: Findings from the National Sleep Foundation’s 2011 sleep in America poll. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine,9(12), 1291–1299. https://doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.3272.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Gregory, A. M., Van der Ende, J., Willis, T. A., & Verhulst, F. C. (2008). Parent-reported sleep problems during development and self-reported anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior later in life. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine,162(4), 330–335. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.162.4.330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hiscock, H., Bayer, J. K., Hampton, A., Ukoumunne, O. C., & Wake, M. (2008). Long-term mother and child mental health effects of a population-based infant sleep intervention: Cluster-randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics,122(3), e621–627. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3783.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. (2010). Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios. Retrieved April 17, 2017, from http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/trabalhoerendimento/pnad98/saude/analise.shtm.
- Liu, Y., Croft, J. B., Wheaton, A. G., Perry, G. S., Chapman, D. P., Strine, T. W., et al. (2013). Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. BMC Public Health. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-84.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Martini, J., Petzoldt, J., Knappe, S., Garthus-Niegel, S., Asselmann, E., & Wittchen, H. U. (2017). Infant, maternal, and familial predictors and correlates of regulatory problems in early infancy: The differential role of infant temperament and maternal anxiety and depression. Early Human Development,115, 23–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2017.08.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mastroeni, M. F., Czarnobay, S. A., Kroll, C., Figueiredo, K. B., Mastroeni, S. S., Silva, J. C., et al. (2017). The independent importance of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain for the prevention of large-for gestational age Brazilian newborns. Maternal and Child Health Journal,21(4), 705–714. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2156-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Norell-Clarke, A., & Hagquist, C. (2018). Child and adolescent sleep duration recommendations in relation to psychological and somatic complaints based on data between 1985 and 2013 from 11 to 15 year-olds. Journal of Adolescence,68, 12–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.07.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sales, W. B., Silleno Junior, J. D., Kroll, C., Mastroeni, S. S., Silva, J. C., & Mastroeni, M. F. (2015). Influence of altered maternal lipid profile on the lipid profile of the newborn. Archives of Endocrinology Metabolism,59(2), 123–128. https://doi.org/10.1590/2359-3997000000024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weinraub, M., Bender, R. H., Friedman, S. L., Susman, E. J., Knoke, B., Bradley, R., et al. (2012). Patterns of developmental change in infants’ nighttime sleep awakenings from 6 through 36 months of age. Developmental Psychology,48(6), 1511–1528. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027680.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. Techical report series (Vol. 894i–xii, pp. 1–253). World Health Organization. Retrieved April 17, 2017, from https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/obesity/WHO_TRS_894/en/.
- World Health Organization. (2006). WHO child growth standards: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved April 17, 2017 from https://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/height_for_age/en/.
- World Health Organization. (2017). Depression and other common mental disorders: Global health estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Retrieved April 17, 2017 from https://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/prevalence_global_health_estimates/en/.
- Wu, X., Tao, S., Rutayisire, E., Chen, Y., Huang, K., & Tao, F. (2017). The relationship between screen time, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in preschool children in China. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,26(5), 541–548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-016-0912-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar