Advertisement

Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 62–72 | Cite as

Association of Maternal Depression and Anxiety Symptoms with Sleep Duration in Children at Preschool Age

  • Lidiane Ferreira Schultz
  • Caroline Kroll
  • Bruna Constantino
  • Melody Cristina Mansani Carraro Trombelli
  • Renatha El Rafihi-Ferreira
  • Marco F. MastroeniEmail author
Article
  • 37 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the effect of maternal depression and anxiety symptoms on daily sleep duration in 4–5-year-old children.

Methods

Data were obtained from the PREDI Study, a larger cohort study conducted in Brazil. The current study is a cross-sectional study carried out in the homes of the participants between July 2016 and August 2017. The participants were submitted to anthropometric assessment and demographic, socioeconomic and psychological data were obtained. Total sleep time was self-reported by the women and classified as ≥ 10 or < 10 h of sleep/day. Maternal depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory, respectively.

Results

Of the 216 children included in the study, 77.3% and 22.7% had ≥ 10 and < 10 h of sleep/day, respectively. Regarding the women, 20.0% and 19.5% had moderate/severe depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Moderate/severe symptoms of maternal depression were associated with < 10 h of sleep/day (p = 0.034). Unadjusted analysis showed that children whose mothers had moderate/severe depression symptoms were significantly more likely to sleep < 10 h/day at 4–5 years of age than those whose mothers had minimal/mild depression symptoms (OR 2.38, p = 0.037). This association continued to be significant and increased to an OR of 3.99 (p = 0.006) after adjusting for potential confounders.

Conclusions for practice

Our study showed that sleeping less than 10 h/day at preschool age was associated with moderate/severe maternal depression symptoms. These results are important from a public health perspective since strategies designed to treat depression in women with school-age children may help improve their child’s sleep quality and, consequently, his cognitive performance and related behavioral and emotional problems in the future.

Keywords

Preschoolers Sleep deprivation Depression Anxiety Preschool age 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Darcy Vargas Maternity Hospital of Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil, for allowing the data collection at their facilities.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interests.

References

  1. Alamian, A., Wang, L., Hall, A. M., Pitts, M., & Ikekwere, J. (2016). Infant sleep problems and childhood overweight: Effects of three definitions of sleep problems. Preventive Medicine Reports,4, 463–468.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.08.017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, S. L., Howlett, M. D., Coulombe, J. A., & Corkum, P. V. (2016). ABCs of SLEEPING: A review of the evidence behind pediatric sleep practice recommendations. Sleep Medicine Reviews,29, 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2015.08.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Audelo, J., Kogut, K., Harley, K. G., Rosas, L. G., Stein, L., & Eskenazi, B. (2016). Maternal depression and childhood overweight in the CHAMACOS study of Mexican-American children. Maternal and Child Health Journal,20(7), 1405–1414.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-1937-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bocknek, E. L., Richardson, P. A., van den Heuvel, M. I., Qipo, T., & Brophy-Herb, H. E. (2018). Sleep moderates the association between routines and emotion regulation for toddlers in poverty. Journal of Family Psychology.  https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000433.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brambilla, P., Giussani, M., Pasinato, A., Venturelli, L., Privitera, F., Miraglia Del Giudice, E., et al. (2017). Sleep habits and pattern in 1-14 years old children and relationship with video devices use and evening and night child activities. Italian Journal of Pediatrics,43(1), 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-016-0324-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BRASIL. (1996). Lei nº 9.394, de 20 de dezembro de 1996. Estabelece as Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional. Brasília. Retrieved April 17, 2017, from http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Leis/L9394.htm.
  7. Cappuccio, F. P., Taggart, F. M., Kandala, N. B., Currie, A., Peile, E., Stranges, S., et al. (2008). Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep,31(5), 619–626.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/31.5.619.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaput, J. P., Gray, C. E., Poitras, V. J., Carson, V., Gruber, R., Birken, C. S., et al. (2017). Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years). BMC Public Health,17(Suppl 5), 855.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4850-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, P., & Harris, K. M. (2019). Association of positive family relationships with mental health trajectories from adolescence to midlife. JAMA Pediatrics.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.3336.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Constantino, B., Silva, J. C. D., Michels, M. D. S., & Mastroeni, M. F. (2019). Symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety and their effect on the child’s weight status four years after delivery. Early Child Development and Care.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2019.1678608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fatima, Y., Doi, S. A., & Mamun, A. A. (2015). Longitudinal impact of sleep on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: A systematic review and bias-adjusted meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews,16(2), 137–149.  https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Figueiredo, B., Schanberg, S., & Kuhn, C. (2007). Sleep disturbances in depressed pregnant women and their newborns. Infant Behavior and Development,30(1), 127–133.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2006.08.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gaffney, K. F., Kitsantas, P., Brito, A., & Swamidoss, C. S. (2014). Postpartum depression, infant feeding practices, and infant weight gain at six months of age. Journal of Pediatric Health Care,28(1), 43–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2012.10.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gomes-Oliveira, M. H., Gorenstein, C., Lotufo Neto, F., Andrade, L. H., & Wang, Y. P. (2012). Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a community sample. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria,34(4), 389–394.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbp.2012.03.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gordon, C. C., Chumlea, W. C., & Roche, A. F. (1988). Stature, recumbent length, and weight. In T. G. Lohman, A. F. Roche, & R. Martorell (Eds.), Anthropometric standartization reference manual (pp. 3–8). Champaign: Human Kinetics Books.Google Scholar
  16. Gorenstein, C., & Andrade, L. (1996). Validation of a Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in Brazilian subjects. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research,29(4), 453–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gradisar, M., Wolfson, A. R., Harvey, A. G., Hale, L., Rosenberg, R., & Czeisler, C. A. (2013). The sleep and technology use of Americans: Findings from the National Sleep Foundation’s 2011 sleep in America poll. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine,9(12), 1291–1299.  https://doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.3272.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Gregory, A. M., Van der Ende, J., Willis, T. A., & Verhulst, F. C. (2008). Parent-reported sleep problems during development and self-reported anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior later in life. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine,162(4), 330–335.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.162.4.330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gruber, R., Carrey, N., Weiss, S. K., Frappier, J. Y., Rourke, L., Brouillette, R. T., et al. (2014). Position statement on pediatric sleep for psychiatrists. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,23(3), 174–195.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Hall, W. A., Zubrick, S. R., Silburn, S. R., Parsons, D. E., & Kurinczuk, J. J. (2007). A model for predicting behavioural sleep problems in a random sample of Australian pre-schoolers. Infant and Child Development,16(5), 509–523.  https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hirshkowitz, M., Whiton, K., Albert, S. M., Alessi, C., Bruni, O., DonCarlos, L., et al. (2015). National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: Methodology and results summary. Sleep Health,1(1), 40–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hiscock, H., Bayer, J. K., Hampton, A., Ukoumunne, O. C., & Wake, M. (2008). Long-term mother and child mental health effects of a population-based infant sleep intervention: Cluster-randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics,122(3), e621–627.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3783.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hiscock, H., & Wake, M. (2001). Infant sleep problems and postnatal depression: A community-based study. Pediatrics,107(6), 1317–1322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. (2010). Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios. Retrieved April 17, 2017, from http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/trabalhoerendimento/pnad98/saude/analise.shtm.
  25. Karraker, K. H., & Young, M. (2007). Night waking in 6-month-old infants and maternal depressive symptoms. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,28(5–6), 493–498.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2007.06.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu, Y., Croft, J. B., Wheaton, A. G., Perry, G. S., Chapman, D. P., Strine, T. W., et al. (2013). Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. BMC Public Health.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-84.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Magee, C. A., Caputi, P., & Iverson, D. C. (2013). Patterns of health behaviours predict obesity in Australian children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health,49(4), 291–296.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.12163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Martini, J., Petzoldt, J., Knappe, S., Garthus-Niegel, S., Asselmann, E., & Wittchen, H. U. (2017). Infant, maternal, and familial predictors and correlates of regulatory problems in early infancy: The differential role of infant temperament and maternal anxiety and depression. Early Human Development,115, 23–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2017.08.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Mastroeni, M. F., Czarnobay, S. A., Kroll, C., Figueiredo, K. B., Mastroeni, S. S., Silva, J. C., et al. (2017). The independent importance of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain for the prevention of large-for gestational age Brazilian newborns. Maternal and Child Health Journal,21(4), 705–714.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2156-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Meltzer, L. J., & Mindell, J. A. (2007). Relationship between child sleep disturbances and maternal sleep, mood, and parenting stress: A pilot study. Journal of Family Psychology,21(1), 67–73.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.21.1.67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mindell, J. A., Owens, J., Alves, R., Bruni, O., Goh, D. Y., Hiscock, H., et al. (2011). Give children and adolescents the gift of a good night’s sleep: A call to action. Sleep Medicine,12(3), 203–204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2011.01.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mindell, J. A., Owens, J. A., & Carskadon, M. A. (1999). Developmental features of sleep. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America,8(4), 695–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Norell-Clarke, A., & Hagquist, C. (2018). Child and adolescent sleep duration recommendations in relation to psychological and somatic complaints based on data between 1985 and 2013 from 11 to 15 year-olds. Journal of Adolescence,68, 12–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.07.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Petzoldt, J., Wittchen, H. U., Einsle, F., & Martini, J. (2016). Maternal anxiety versus depressive disorders: specific relations to infants’ crying, feeding and sleeping problems. Child: Care, Health and Development,42(2), 231–245.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sadeh, A., Tikotzky, L., & Scher, A. (2010). Parenting and infant sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews,14(2), 89–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2009.05.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sales, W. B., Silleno Junior, J. D., Kroll, C., Mastroeni, S. S., Silva, J. C., & Mastroeni, M. F. (2015). Influence of altered maternal lipid profile on the lipid profile of the newborn. Archives of Endocrinology Metabolism,59(2), 123–128.  https://doi.org/10.1590/2359-3997000000024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Scher, A., Zukerman, S., & Epstein, R. (2005). Persistent night waking and settling difficulties across the first year: Early precursors of later behavioural problems? Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology,23(1), 77–88.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02646830512331330929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tikotzky, L., & Sadeh, A. (2009). Maternal sleep-related cognitions and infant sleep: A longitudinal study from pregnancy through the 1st year. Child Development,80(3), 860–874.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01302.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Weinraub, M., Bender, R. H., Friedman, S. L., Susman, E. J., Knoke, B., Bradley, R., et al. (2012). Patterns of developmental change in infants’ nighttime sleep awakenings from 6 through 36 months of age. Developmental Psychology,48(6), 1511–1528.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027680.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. Techical report series (Vol. 894i–xii, pp. 1–253). World Health Organization. Retrieved April 17, 2017, from https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/obesity/WHO_TRS_894/en/.
  41. World Health Organization. (2006). WHO child growth standards: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved April 17, 2017 from https://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/height_for_age/en/.
  42. World Health Organization. (2017). Depression and other common mental disorders: Global health estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Retrieved April 17, 2017 from https://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/prevalence_global_health_estimates/en/.
  43. Wu, X., Tao, S., Rutayisire, E., Chen, Y., Huang, K., & Tao, F. (2017). The relationship between screen time, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in preschool children in China. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,26(5), 541–548.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-016-0912-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lidiane Ferreira Schultz
    • 1
  • Caroline Kroll
    • 1
  • Bruna Constantino
    • 1
  • Melody Cristina Mansani Carraro Trombelli
    • 2
  • Renatha El Rafihi-Ferreira
    • 3
  • Marco F. Mastroeni
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Post-graduate Program in Health and EnvironmentUniversity of Joinville RegionJoinvilleBrazil
  2. 2.Nursing DepartmentUniversity of Joinville Region – UNIVILLEJoinvilleBrazil
  3. 3.Psychology InstituteUniversity of São Paulo (USP)São PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations