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Correction to: Do Insurance Mandates Affect Racial Disparities in Outcomes for Children with Autism?

  • Pratik Doshi
  • J. Mick Tilford
  • Songthip Ounpraseuth
  • Dennis Z. Kuo
  • Nalin PayakachatEmail author
Correction
  • 45 Downloads

Correction to: Maternal and Child Health Journal (2017) 21(2):351–366  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2120-z

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the analysis of the Tables 4 and 5. All analyses were conducted based on information regarding insurance mandates for autism that were extracted in 2012 and then continued updating Table 5 (state mandates) up to 2016 when the manuscript got published. Therefore, information of insurance mandate got updated to reflect the most recent changes in autism mandate in several states. The main analysis (Table 4) has been rerun, including Wisconsin as a mandate state and excluding Connecticut, Kansas, and Kentucky. However, there is no change in the results. The Tables 4 and 5 are corrected with this correction.

Table 4

Impact of private insurance mandates on racial disparities in outcomes of White and non-White children with ASDs across the 2005/06 and 2009/10 the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs

Variable

Unadjusted

Adjusted

Coefficients

95% CI

p

Coefficients

95% CI

p

Care quality indicators

 Had access to family-centered care

− 0.409

− 1.432, 0.612

0.432

− 0.453

− 1.509, 0.603

0.400

 Received coordinated, comprehensive and continuous care

− 0.683

− 1.915, 0.548

0.277

− 0.681

− 1.927, 0.564

0.284

 Any problems getting needed referrals

1.028

− 0.498, 2.555

0.187

1.281

− 0.290, 2.852

0.110

 Child unmet needs ratio

0.133

− 1.119, 1.386

0.835

0.111

− 1.079, 1.302

0.854

Family economic outcomes

 Paid $501 → $1,000 annual out-of-pocket expenses of the family to take care of the affected child

− 0.275

− 1.335, 0.784

0.610

− 0.367

− 1.549, 0.814

0.542

 CSHCN whose families experienced financial burden due to child’s condition

0.069

− 0.962, 1.101

0.895

− 0.011

− 1.094, 1.071

0.983

 Spent 5 → 11 h by families per week of CSHCN taking care of their child

0.552

− 0.471, 1.576

0.290

0.748

− 0.332, 1.831

0.175

 CSHCN whose families had to cut back on work hours or stop working due to child’s condition

− 0.312

− 1.314, 0.689

0.541

− 0.289

− 1.321, 0.741

0.581

Child health outcomes

 Child’s condition “Usually” or “Always” affects his/her ability to do age-appropriate things

0.533

− 0.479, 1.544

0.302

0.636

− 0.402, 1.674

0.229

 Child’s condition affects “Some” or “A great deal” his/her ability to do age-appropriate things

0.316

− 0.729, 1.362

0.553

0.327

− 0.749, 1.404

0.551

Models adjusted for age, race, poverty level of family, child unmet needs ratio, family unmet needs ratio, psychiatric comorbidities, other comorbidities

p-value less than 0.003 considered significant

Table 5

State-by-state variation of insurance mandates

State

Year effective

Annual dollar limits

Age limit

Services covered

Applies to

Alabama

2012

$36,000 for ABA, no limits otherwise

9 years

Behavioral health treatment (ABA), Pharmacy care, Psychiatric care, Psychological care, Therapeutic care

All insurances plans with 51 or more employees

Alaska

2013

No limits

21 years

Diagnosis, Pharmacy care, Psychiatric care, Psychological care, Applied behavioral analysis (ABA), speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy

Individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Arizona

2009

$50,000 for ages < 9 years

$25,000 for ages 9–16 years

16 years

Diagnosis, Behavioral therapy services

State employee health plans, fully insured large group plans

Arkansas

2011

$50,000

18 years

Diagnosis, ABA, Pharmacy care, Psychiatric care, Psychological care, Therapeutic care, Necessary medical equipment

State employee health plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

California

2000

No limits

No limits

Behavioral health treatment

Individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Colorado

2010

$34,000 for ages < 9 years

$12,000 for ages 9–19 years

19 years

Diagnosis, Behavior training and management, ABA, Habilitative or rehabilitative care, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care

State employee health plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Connecticut

2010

$50,000 for ages < 9 years

$35,000 for ages 9–13 years

$25,000 for ages 13–15 years

15 years

Diagnosis, Behavioral therapy, prescription drugs, psychiatric and psychological care, Physical therapy, Speech therapy and Occupational therapy

State employee health plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Delaware

2012

$36,000

21 years

Behavioral health treatment, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care, necessary equipment

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

District of Columbia

2007

Limited coverage

No limits

Habilitative services (ABA)

State employee health plans, fully insured small group plans

Florida

2008

$36,000

Lifetime max

$200,000

18 years

Screening and diagnosis, speech therapy, occupational therapy, psychical therapy, ABA

State employee health plans, fully insured small group plans

Georgia

2001

$30,000 for ABA, no limits otherwise

Habilitative services, counseling services, therapy services

All health insurance plans

Illinois

2008

$36,000

21 years

Diagnosis, psychiatric care, psychological care, Habilitative or rehabilitative care (ABA), therapeutic care

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Indiana

2001

No limits

No limits

Treatment plan as prescribed

State employee health plans, some individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Iowa

2006

$36,000

21 years

Diagnostic assessment, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care, rehabilitative care (ABA), therapeutic care

State employee health plans

Kansas

2010

$36,000

19 years

Diagnosis, ABA, Other services prescribed

State employee health plans, individual plans*, fully insured large group and small group plans*

Kentucky

2011

$12,000

21 years

Diagnosis, Habilitative or rehabilitative care, Medical care, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Louisiana

2009

$36,000

21 years

Diagnosis, Habilitative or rehabilitative care, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care

State employee health plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Maine

2011

$36,000

5 years

Diagnosis, Habilitative or rehabilitative care, counseling services, therapy services

Fully insured large group and small group plans

Maryland

2000, 2014

Some limits, No limits

Some limits

Habilitative services but not cover services provided through schools or early interventions (HB0006—MD Bus Reg Code § 15–835). In 2012, the existing Habilitative Service Mandate was updated to include behavioral health treatment for children with ASD (effective in 2014)

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Massachusetts

2009

No limits

No limits

Diagnosis, Habilitative or rehabilitative care, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Michigan

2012

$50,000 for ages < 6 years

$40,000 for ages 7–12 years

$30,000 for ages 13–18 years

18 years

Behavioral health treatment, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care

Some state employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Minnesota

2016

No limits

18 years

Diagnosis, evaluation, multidisciplinary assessment, early intensive behavioral and developmental therapy, neurodevelopmental and behavioral health treatment, speech therapy, physical therapy, medications

State employee health plans, fully insured large group plans

Missouri

2010

$40,000

18 years

Diagnosis, Habilitative or rehabilitative care, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care

State employee health plans, some individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Montana

2010

$50,000 for ages < 8 years

$20,000 for ages 9–18 years

18 years

Diagnosis, Habilitative or rehabilitative care, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Nebraska

2014

No limits

21 years

Diagnosis, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care, ABA, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy

State employee health plans, some individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Nevada

2011

$36,000

18 years

Screening and diagnosis, Habilitative or rehabilitative care, pharmacy care, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care

State employee health plans, some individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

New Hampshire

2011

$36,000/year for ages < 12 years $27,000/year for ages 12–21 years

21 years

ABA, pharmaceuticals, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy

Fully insured large group and small group plans

New Jersey

2010

$36,000

No limits

ABA, occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech therapy

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

New Mexico

2010

$36,000

Lifetime max: $200,000

19 years

Screening, diagnosis, occupational therapy, physical therapy, ABA

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

New York

2011

$45,000

No limits

Diagnosis, behavioral health treatment, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

North Carolina

2015

$40,000 for ABA, no limits otherwise

18 years

Diagnosis, Pharmacy care, Psychiatric care, Psychological care, Therapeutic care, Adaptive behavior treatment

All health plans

North Dakota

Ohio

2017

No limits

21 years

Speech therapy, occupational therapy, clinical therapeutic intervention, mental/behavioral health outpatient services

State employee health plans, some individual plans, fully insured small group plans

Oklahoma

2016

$25,000 for ABA, no limits otherwise

9 years

Diagnosis, Behavioral health treatment, pharmacy care, Psychiatric care, Psychological care, Therapeutic care

All health benefit plans

Oregon

2007

Unclear

Coverage of health services

Unclear

Pennsylvania

2009

$36,000

21 years

Diagnosis, behavioral health treatment, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care

State employee health plans, fully insured large group plans

Rhode Island

2011

$32,000

15 years

Pharmaceuticals, ABA, physical therapy, speech therapy, psychology, psychiatric and occupational therapy

State employee health plans, fully insured large group plans

South Carolina

2008

$50,000

16 years

Coverage for treatment as prescribed by treating doctor

State employee health plans, fully insured large group plans

South Dakota

2015

$36,000 for ABA up to ages 6 years

$25,000 for ABA for ages 7–13 years

$12,500 for ABA for ages 14–18 years

18 years

Behavioral health treatment, Pharmacy care, Therapeutic care

All individual and group health insurance policies

Tennessee

2007

12 years

No coverage for ABA

All health insurance plans

Texas

2007

No limits for ages < 10 years

$36,000/year for ages 10 + years

No limits

Evaluation and assessment services, ABA, behavior training and management, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, medications

Some state employee health plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Utah

2016

No limits

2–10 years

Diagnosis, behavioral health treatment, psychiatric care, psychological care, ABA, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy

Individual plans, fully insured large group plans

Vermont

2011

No limits

21 years

Diagnosis, behavioral health treatment, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care, pharmacy care

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Virginia

2011

$35,000

2–6 years

Diagnosis, behavioral health treatment, psychiatric care, psychological care, therapeutic care, pharmacy care, ABA

State employee health plans, fully insured large group plans

Washington

West Virginia

2011

$30,000 for 3 years, then $2000/month

18 months–18 years

Diagnosis, ABA, necessary medical treatments

State employee health plans, fully insured large group plans

Wisconsin

2009

$50,000/year for 4 years for children between ages 2 and 9 years

No age limits

Diagnosis, ABA, psychiatric and psychological care, speech therapy, occupational therapy

State employee health plans, individual plans, fully insured large group and small group plans

Wyoming

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health Policy and ManagementUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiostatisticsUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  5. 5.Department of Pharmacy PracticeUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA

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