Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disorder that is a subclass of IgE mediated hypersensitivity. Cockroach allergy is one of the main reasons of asthma. German cockroach (Blattella germanica) and American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) are two principal species of cockroach. Bla g 2, Bla g 4, Bla g 5 and alpha-amylase 53 kDa are the known allergens of Blattella germanica that are used in this study to design the peptide allergy vaccine. In this study, with the help of immunoinformatics approaches, we try to design an efficient epitope vaccine against above-mentioned allergens. The designed vaccine consists of the common epitopes of T and B cells epitopes from the aforesaid allergens that are fused to each other by these two linkers; GGS and linker; moreover, to boost vaccine immunogenicity, the D1 of flagellin was added to N-terminal of vaccine. Afterwards, a 3D model of the final vaccine construct was generated using GalaxyWEB, and validated by ProSA-web, ERRAT and the Ramachandran plot softwares, in order to select the best 3D model. Finally, protein docking was performed between the flagellin part of vaccine and toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). In sum, our obtained results from computational studies shows that the designed epitope vaccine can be suggested as a prophylactic or therapeutic candidate vaccine Blattella germanica cockroach’s allergens; however, the efficacy of vaccine should be confirmed by immunological assays.
In silico design Epitope vaccine Allergy Bellatella germanica cockroach Immunotherapy
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors wish to thank Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (16878) for supporting the conduct of this research.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare that they have none conflict of interest.
Research Involving Human and Animal Participants
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Chen H, Yang HW, Wei JF, Tao AL (2014) In silico prediction of the T-cell and IgE-binding epitopes of Per a 6 and Bla g 6 allergens in cockroaches. Mol Med Rep 10:2130–2136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen C, Huang H, Wu CH (2017) Protein bioinformatics databases and resources. In: Frishman D, Valencia A (eds) Protein Bioinformatics. Springer, New York, pp 3–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng J, Randall AZ, Sweredoski MJ, Baldi P (2005) SCRATCH: a protein structure and structural feature prediction server. Nucleic Acids Res 33:W72–W76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colovos C, Yeates TO (1993) Verification of protein structures: patterns of nonbonded atomic interactions. Protein Sci 2:1511–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuadros C, Lopez-Hernandez FJ, Dominguez AL, McClelland M, Lustgarten J (2004) Flagellin fusion proteins as adjuvants or vaccines induce specific immune responses. Infect Immun 72:2810–2816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Do DC, Zhao Y, Gao P (2016) Cockroach allergen exposure and risk of asthma. Allergy 71:463–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Incorvaia C, Riario-Sforza GG, Ridolo E (2017) IgE depletion in severe asthma: what we have and what could be added in the near future. EBioMedicine 17:16–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jespersen MC, Peters B, Nielsen M, Marcatili P (2017) BepiPred-2.0: improving sequence-based B-cell epitope prediction using conformational epitopes. Nucleic Acids Res 45:W24–W29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khan S et al (2007) Distinct uptake mechanisms but similar intracellular processing of two different toll-like receptor ligand-peptide conjugates in dendritic cells. J Biol Chem 282:21145–21159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kringelum JV, Lundegaard C, Lund O, Nielsen M (2012) Reliable B cell epitope predictions: impacts of method development and improved benchmarking. PLoS Comput Biol 8:e1002829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Livingston B, Crimi C, Newman M, Higashimoto Y, Appella E, Sidney J, Sette A (2002) A rational strategy to design multiepitope immunogens based on multiple Th lymphocyte epitopes. J Immunol 168:5499–5506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lovell SC et al (2003) Structure validation by Cα geometry: ϕ, ψ and Cβ deviation. Proteins 50:437–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Negahdaripour M et al (2017) A novel HPV prophylactic peptide vaccine, designed by immunoinformatics and structural vaccinology approaches. Infect Genet Evol 54:402–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Negahdaripour M et al (2018) Structural vaccinology considerations for in silico designing of a multi-epitope vaccine. Infect Genet Evol 58:96–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen M, Lund O (2009) NN-align. An artificial neural network-based alignment algorithm for MHC class II peptide binding prediction. BMC Bioinform 10:296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen M, Lundegaard C, Lund O (2007) Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method. BMC Bioinform 8:238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Organization WA (2014) WAO white book on allergy update 2013. World Allergy Organization, MilwaukeeGoogle Scholar
Pascal M, Konstantinou G, Masilamani M, Lieberman J, Sampson H (2013) In silico prediction of Ara h 2 T cell epitopes in peanut-allergic children. Clin Exp Allergy 43:116–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patronov A, Doytchinova I (2013) T-cell epitope vaccine design by immunoinformatics. Open Biol 3:120139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pomés A (2008) Cockroach and other inhalant insect allergens. Clin Allergy Immunol 21:183PubMedGoogle Scholar
Pomés A, Arruda LK (2014) Investigating cockroach allergens: aiming to improve diagnosis and treatment of cockroach allergic patients. Methods 66:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pomés A, Mueller GA, Randall TA, Chapman MD, Arruda LK (2017) New insights into cockroach allergens. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 17:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saha S, Raghava G (2006) AlgPred: prediction of allergenic proteins and mapping of IgE epitopes. Nucleic Acids Res 34:W202–W209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schülke S et al (2011) A fusion protein of flagellin and ovalbumin suppresses the TH2 response and prevents murine intestinal allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 128(1340–1348):e1312Google Scholar
Shahbazi M, Haghkhah M, Rahbar MR, Nezafat N, Ghasemi Y (2016) In silico sub-unit hexavalent peptide vaccine against an Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-related infection. Int J Pept Res Ther 22:101–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shin W-H, Lee GR, Heo L, Lee H, Seok C (2014) Prediction of protein structure and interaction by GALAXY protein modeling programs Bio Des 2:1–11Google Scholar
Teifoori F et al (2014) Identification of the main allergen sensitizers in an Iran asthmatic population by molecular diagnosis. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 10:41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torchala M, Bates PA (2014) Predicting the structure of protein–protein complexes using the SwarmDock web server. In: Kihar D (ed) Protein structure prediction. Springer, New York, pp 181–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valenta R, Ferreira F, Focke-Tejkl M, Linhart B, Niederberger V, Swoboda I, Vrtala S (2009) From allergen genes to allergy vaccines. Ann Rev Immunol 28:211–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar