Antimicrobial Activity of Two Novel Venoms from Saudi Arabian Scorpions (Leiurus quinquestriatus and Androctonus crassicauda)

  • Reem AlajmiEmail author
  • Sumaiah Al-ghamdi
  • Ibrahim Barakat
  • Amany Mahmoud
  • Nuzha Abdon
  • Mohamed Al-Ahidib
  • Rewaida Abdel-Gaber


Many recent studies have shown the benefits of scorpion venom, as it components may be used as potential candidates for drug development, especially as antimicrobial compounds against both gram-negative or gram-positive bacterial strains and fungi. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of venom from two scorpion species that inhabit Saudi Arabia (Leiurus quinquestriatus and Androctonus crassicauda) against four bacterial strains: two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae). Scorpions were collected from two cities (Riyadh and Taif) and the venom was extracted using electrical stimulation, and then lyophilized. The antimicrobial activity of the lyophilized venoms was evaluated in vitro by an agar well diffusion method against standard bacterial strains by measuring the inhibition zone of each bacterial strain upon treatment with scorpion venom. Our results showed that the crude venom of the two scorpion species had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria studied.


Venom Scorpions Bacterial strains Antimicrobial activity Saudi Arabia 



This research project supported by a grant from the Research Center of the Female Scientific and Medical Colleges, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. We thank the Deanship of Scientific Research and RSSU at King Saud University for their technical support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have indicated that they have no conflict of interest regarding the content of this article.

Ethical Approval

All procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national guides on the care and use of laboratory animals and have been approved and authorized by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reem Alajmi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sumaiah Al-ghamdi
    • 1
  • Ibrahim Barakat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amany Mahmoud
    • 3
    • 4
  • Nuzha Abdon
    • 5
  • Mohamed Al-Ahidib
    • 5
  • Rewaida Abdel-Gaber
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Cell BiologyNational Research CenterCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutics, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of PharmacyAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt
  5. 5.King Abdulaziz Medical City National Guard HospitalRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceCairo UniversityCairoEgypt

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