Optimization of the Extraction Process by Response Surface Methodology of Protein Isolate from Defatted Jujube (Zizyphus lotus L.) Seeds

  • Moncef Chouaibi
  • Amel BoussaidEmail author
  • Francesco Donsì
  • Giovanna Ferrari
  • Salem Hamdi


In this study, response surface methodology, based on Box-Behnken design, was used to optimize the extraction conditions of protein isolate from the defatted seeds of jujube (Zizyphus lotus L.). This research focused on the effect of extraction temperature (30–50 °C), mixing time (15–75 min), pH (6.0–10.0), and solvent to solid ratio (15:1–35:1 v/w) on the extraction yield of jujube seed (Z. lotus L.) protein. The pH, mixing time and extraction temperature were the most significant (p < 0.01) factors affecting the yield of Z. lotus protein isolate. The optimum conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 41.79 °C, mixing time 54.46 min, pH 8.65, and solvent to solid ratio of 25.90:1. Under these conditions, the experimental percentage value was 81.52%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model (80.91%). The results of physicochemical analysis showed that protein isolate of Z. lotus ZLPI had most of the essential amino acids and hence could be considered as a high quality protein. Protein isolate from Z. lotus had a single denaturation temperature (120.17 °C), while soy protein isolate had two denaturation temperatures (76.36 and 93.02 °C). This fact is of great economic interest due to several applications of Z. lotus protein in the food pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.


Zizyphus lotus Response surface methodology Protein isolate Physicochemical properties Thermal behavior Functional properties 



The authors wish to thank the financial support of the Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Technology of Tunisia.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moncef Chouaibi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amel Boussaid
    • 2
    Email author
  • Francesco Donsì
    • 1
  • Giovanna Ferrari
    • 1
  • Salem Hamdi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Food EngineeringUniversity of SalernoFiscianoItaly
  2. 2.Food Preservation LaboratoryHigh Institute of Food IndustryTunisTunisia

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