Advertisement

Optimization of the Extraction Process by Response Surface Methodology of Protein Isolate from Defatted Jujube (Zizyphus lotus L.) Seeds

  • Moncef Chouaibi
  • Amel BoussaidEmail author
  • Francesco Donsì
  • Giovanna Ferrari
  • Salem Hamdi
Article
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, response surface methodology, based on Box-Behnken design, was used to optimize the extraction conditions of protein isolate from the defatted seeds of jujube (Zizyphus lotus L.). This research focused on the effect of extraction temperature (30–50 °C), mixing time (15–75 min), pH (6.0–10.0), and solvent to solid ratio (15:1–35:1 v/w) on the extraction yield of jujube seed (Z. lotus L.) protein. The pH, mixing time and extraction temperature were the most significant (p < 0.01) factors affecting the yield of Z. lotus protein isolate. The optimum conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 41.79 °C, mixing time 54.46 min, pH 8.65, and solvent to solid ratio of 25.90:1. Under these conditions, the experimental percentage value was 81.52%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model (80.91%). The results of physicochemical analysis showed that protein isolate of Z. lotus ZLPI had most of the essential amino acids and hence could be considered as a high quality protein. Protein isolate from Z. lotus had a single denaturation temperature (120.17 °C), while soy protein isolate had two denaturation temperatures (76.36 and 93.02 °C). This fact is of great economic interest due to several applications of Z. lotus protein in the food pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

Keywords

Zizyphus lotus Response surface methodology Protein isolate Physicochemical properties Thermal behavior Functional properties 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the financial support of the Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Technology of Tunisia.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Amza T, Amadou I, Zhu KX, Zhou HM (2011) Effect of extraction and isolation on physicochemical and functional properties of an underutilized seed protein: gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla). Food Res Int 44:2843–2850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Bezerraa MA, Santelli RE, Oliveiraa EP, Villar LS, Escaleiraa LA (2008) Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta 76:965–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bora PS (2002) Functional properties of native and succinylated lentil (Lens culinaris) globulins. Food Chem 77:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borgi W, Bouraoui A, Chouchane N (2007) Anticerogenic activity of Zizyphus lotus (L.) extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 112:228–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boye JI, Aksay S, Roufik S, Ribéreau S, Mondor M, Farnworth E et al (2010) Comparison of the functional properties of pea, chickpea and lentil protein concentrates processed using ultrafiltration and isoelectric precipitation techniques. Food Res Int 43:537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradford M (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principal of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cai R, Mccurdy A, Baik BK (2002) Texture property of 6 legume curds in relation to their protein constituents. J Food Sci 67:1725–1730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cepeda E (1998) Functional properties of Faba Bean protein flour dried by spray drying and freeze drying. J Food Eng 36:303–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chee KL, Ling HK, Ayob MK (2012) Optimization of trypsin-assisted extraction, physicochemical characterization, nutritional qualities and functionalities of palm kernel cake protein. J Food Sci Technol 46:419–427Google Scholar
  11. Chouaibi M, Mahfoudhi N, Rezig L, Donsì F, Ferrari G, Hamdi S (2012a) Extraction of polysaccharide from Zizyphus Lotus fruits. Int J Food Eng 8(3):1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chouaibi M, Mahfoudhi N, Rezig L, Donsì F, Ferrari G, Hamdi S (2012b) Nutritional composition of Zizyphus lotus L. seeds. J Sci Food Agric 92:1171–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Damodaran S (1979) Food proteins: an overview. In: Damodaran S, Paraf A (eds) Food proteins and their applications, 1st edn. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp 1–24nGoogle Scholar
  14. Damodaran S (1996) Amino acids, peptides, and proteins. In: Fennema OR (ed) Food chemistry, 3rd edn. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp 321–429Google Scholar
  15. Dong XY, Guo LL, Wei F, Li JF, Jiang ML, Li GM, Zhao YD, Chen H (2011) Some characteristics and functional properties of rapeseed protein prepared by ultrasonication, ultrafiltration and isoelectric precipitation. J Sci Food Agric 91:1488–1498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dua S, Mahajan A, Mahajan A (1996) Improvement of functional properties of rapeseed (Brassica campestris Var. Toria) preparations by chemical modification. J Agric Food Chem 1996 44:706–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. FAO/WHO/UNU (2007) Protein and amino acids requirements in human nutrition. WHO Technical Report Series 935. pp 135–183, 247–248Google Scholar
  18. Firatligil-Durmus E, Evranuz O (2010) Response surface methodology for protein extraction optimization of red pepper seed (Capsicum frutescens). Food Sci Technol 43:226–231Google Scholar
  19. Ge YQ, Sun AD, Ni YY, Cai TY (2000) Some nutritional and functional properties of defatted wheat germ protein. J Agric Food Chem 48:6215–6218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hettiarachchy NS, Griffin VK, Gnanasambandam R (1996) Preparation and functional properties of a protein isolate from defatted wheat germ. Cereal Chem 106(1):345–351Google Scholar
  21. Jarrett HW, Cooksy KD, Ellis B, Anderson JM (1986) The separation of ophthalaldehyde derivatives of amino acids by reversed phase chromatography on octylsilica columns. Anal Biochem 153:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jiang J, Chen JJ, Xiong YL (2009) Structural and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate subjected to acid and alkaline pH-shifting processes. J Agric Food Chem 57(16):7576–7583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Joshi M, Adhikari B, Aldred P, Panozzo JE, Kasapis S (2011) Physicochemical and functional properties of lentil protein isolates prepared by different drying methods. Food Chem 129:1513–1522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ju ZY. Hettiarachchy NS, Rath N (2001) Extraction, denaturation and hydrophobic properties of rice flour proteins. J Food Sci 66(2):229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaur G, Kumar V, Goyal A, Tanwar B, Kaur J (2018) Optimization of nutritional beverage developed from radish, sugarcane and herbal extract using response surface methodology. Nutr Food Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-11-2017-0247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kinsella JE (1979) Functional properties of soy proteins. J Am Oil Chem Soc 56:242–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kushwaha R, Kumar V, Vyas G, Jasleen Kaur J (2018) Optimization of different variable for eco-friendly extraction of betalains and phytochemicals from beetroot pomace. Waste Biomass Valor 9:1485–1494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Laclair CE, Etzel MR (2010) Ingredients and pH are key to clear beverages that contain whey protein. J Food Sci 75:C21–C27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of saturated proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lawal OS (2004) Functionality of African locust bean (Parkia biglobossa) protein isolate; effects of pH, ionic strength and various concentrations. Food Chem 86(3):345–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li X, Deng J, Shen S, Li T, Yuan M, Yang R, Ding C (2015) Antioxidant activities and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from defatted Camellia oleifera seed cake. J Food Sci Technol 52(9):5681–5690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manamperi WAR, Wiesenborn DP, Chang SKC, Pryor SW (2011) Effects of protein separation conditions on the functional and thermal properties of canola protein isolates. J Food Sci 76:E266–E273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mechmeche M, Kachouri F, Moncef Chouabi M, Ksontini H, Setti K, Hamdi M (2016) Optimization of extraction parameters of protein isolate from tomato seed using response surface methodology. Food Anal Methods 10(3):809–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moure A, Sineiro J, Dominguez H, Parajo JC (2006) Functionality of oilseed protein products: a review. Food Res Int 39:945–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Naczk M, Diosady LL, Rubin LJ (1985) Functional properties of canola meals produced by a two phase solvent extraction system. J Food Sci 50:1685–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Paraman I, Hettiarachchy NS, Schaefer C (2007) Glycosylation and deamidation of rice endosperm protein for improved solubility and emulsifying properties. Cereal Chem 84:593–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pearce KN, Kinsella JE (1978) Emulsifying properties of proteins: evaluation of a turbidimetric technique. J Agric Food Chem 26:716–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pottier P, Alapetite G (1981) Programme flore et végétation tunisiennes. Flore de la Tunisie Publications Scientifiques Tunisiennes, TunisGoogle Scholar
  39. Qi M, Hettiarchchy NS, Kalapathy U (1997) Solubility and emulsifying properties of soybean protein isolates modified by pancreatin. J Food Sci 62:1110–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Setti K, Kachouri F, Hamdi M (2018) Improvement of the antioxidant activity of fenugreek protein isolates by Lactococcus lactis fermentation. Int J Pept Res Ther 24(4):499–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shen L, Wang X, Wang Z, Wu Y, Chen J (2008) Studies on tea protein extraction using alkaline and enzyme methods. Food Chem 107(2):929–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tang CH, Chen L, Ma CY (2009a) Thermal aggregation, amino acid composition and in vitro digestibility of vicilin-rich protein isolates from three Phaseolus legumes: a comparative study. Food Chem 113:957–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tang C-H, Wang X-S, Yang X-Q (2009b) Enzymatic hydrolysis of hem (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate by various proteases and antioxidant properties of the resulting hydrolysates. Food Chem 114:1484–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang X, Gao W, Zhang J, Zhang H, Li J, He X, Ma H (2010) Subunit, amino acid composition and in vitro digestibility of protein isolates from Chinese kabuli and desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. Food Res Int 43:567–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wu Y, Cui SW, Tang J, Gu X (2007) Optimization of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from boat-fruited sterculia seeds by response surface methodology. Food Chem 105:1599–1605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhu KX, Sun XH, Chen ZC, Peng W, Qian HF, Zhou HM (2010) Comparison of functional properties and secondary structures of defeated wheat germ proteins separated by reverse micelles and alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation. Food Chem 123(4):1163–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zuber H (1988) Temperature adaptation of lactate dehydrogenase: structural, functional and genetic aspects. Biophys Chem 29:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moncef Chouaibi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amel Boussaid
    • 2
    Email author
  • Francesco Donsì
    • 1
  • Giovanna Ferrari
    • 1
  • Salem Hamdi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Food EngineeringUniversity of SalernoFiscianoItaly
  2. 2.Food Preservation LaboratoryHigh Institute of Food IndustryTunisTunisia

Personalised recommendations