Anti-Coagulation Activities of Malaysian Mikania cordata Leaves
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The majority of the current anticoagulant drugs are chemically synthesised and to date, very limited sources are taken from natural-based agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of the leaves extract of Mikania cordata (Selaput Tunggul) on basic coagulation activities and to identify its bioactive compounds. In this study, blood donors were divided into two groups where twenty-six blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT) tests, whilst for the evaluation of the effect of Mikania extracts on factor levels, another twenty-seven healthy donors were recruited. Five factor levels namely factor VII, IX, X, II and I were measured in citrated plasma treated with two different aqueous leaves concentration at 12.5 and 25.0 mg/mL. The control used was normal saline (untreated). Identification of bioactive compounds were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) in aqueous solution. Significant prolongation of both APTT and TT in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.01) was observed. In PT assay, a significant reduction of clotting time (p < 0.01) at 3.13 mg/mL and a significant prolongation of clotting time (p < 0.01) at 12.5 and 25.0 mg/mL were recorded. Percentage of factors (VII, IX, X, II and I) in untreated and treated plasma with 12.5 and 25.0 mg/mL of M. cordata extracts were significantly reduced compared to control. The GCMS has identified 16 and 15 constituents in the ethanol and aqueous extract; subsequently and supports the finding of a strong anticoagulant effect of the extract. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the aqueous extract of Mikania cordata leaves has anticoagulant effects in a concentration-dependent manner. The GCMS results showed that the aqueous extract contains many bioactive constituents that contribute to its anticoagulant activities. Thus, Mikana cordata can be explored further to be used as an ingredient for anticoagulant drugs in the future.
KeywordsMikania cordata Anticoagulant activity In vitro Coagulation assays GCMS
Authors would like to acknowledge Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (AMDI) Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) for providing student’s incentive fund to carry out the study, the staff in Advanced Diagnostic Laboratory, AMDI USM and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory for their technical supports.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data [WNWS, NYY, VL, HMF and BHY], (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content [WNWS, NYY, VL, HMF and BHY], (3) final approval of the version to be submitted [WNWS, NYY, VL, HMF and BHY].
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
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