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Individual and Synergistic Antioxidant Effects of Dipeptides in In Vitro Antioxidant Evaluation Systems

  • Zhiyang Du
  • Jingbo Liu
  • Deju Zhang
  • Long Ding
  • Yizhen Wang
  • Dawei Tan
  • Ting ZhangEmail author
Article
  • 201 Downloads

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the individual and synergistic antioxidant effects of dipeptides in vitro. Based on a study of amino acid antioxidant activities, 36 dipeptides were chosen. All their individual antioxidant effects were tested in in vitro antioxidant evaluation systems, including the DPPH, ABTS, ORAC, and FRAP assays. Based on the results of individual antioxidant effects of these dipeptides, some of them were chosen to study their synergistic antioxidant effects in the four antioxidant assays. The results of the DPPH assay showed that dipeptides containing Cys exhibited radical scavenging activity. The synergistic antioxidant assay indicated that LC and CH, LC and CN, LC and CE, CH and CN, CH and CE, and CN and CE have significant synergistic effects (p < 0.01) in the DPPH assay. Moreover, the results of the ABTS assay showed that 17 dipeptides have ABTS radical scavenging activities and that all of them contain Cys, Trp, and Tyr residues. Their synergistic antioxidant assay showed that CR and CH, YR and YK, YR and YN, and WK and IW showed highly significant synergistic antioxidant effects (p < 0.01). The results of the ORAC assay showed that 22 dipeptides possessed ORAC activities and that all of them have one or two Cys, His, Met, Trp, and Tyr residues. The synergistic effects of CH and HL, WK and WR, YK and WR, LC and FM, FM and CH, and WK and IW were significant (p < 0.01). Finally, in the FRAP assay, six dipeptides showed ferric reducing antioxidant activities and all of them contained the Cys residue. The synergistic antioxidant effects of HV and CN, CK and CN, CH and CN, and CE and CN were also significant (p < 0.01). These findings indicate that the individual and synergistic antioxidant effects of dipeptides are related to their constituent amino acids. These results may help study other individual and synergistic antioxidant effects of dipeptides.

Keywords

Dipeptide Synergistic antioxidant DPPH ORAC ABTS FRAP 

Abbreviations

YN

Tyr-Asn

NY

Asn-Tyr

DY

Asp-Tyr

DN

Asp-Asn

YS

Tyr-Ser

SY

Ser-Tyr

DS

Asp-Ser

DG

Asp-Gly

FM

Phe-Met

DT

Asp-Thr

DE

Asp-Glu

CR

Cys-Arg

LC

Leu-Cys

LR

Leu-Arg

CK

Cys-Lys

WK

Trp-Lys

CH

Cys-His

CN

Cys-Asn

FI

Phe-Ile

WR

Trp-Arg

IW

Ile-Trp

YR

Tyr-Arg

YK

Tyr-Lys

RK

Arg-Lys

CE

Cys-Glu

SA

Ser-Ala

QE

Gln-Glu

PE

Pro-Glu

SE

Ser-Glu

PT

Pro-Thr

HK

His-Lys

VR

Val-Arg

HV

His-Val

HR

His-Arg

HY

His-Tyr

HL

His-Leu

ORAC

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity

PBS

Phosphate buffer saline

DPPH

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

ABTS

2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt

FRAP

Ferric reducing antioxidant power

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support provided by the National Natural Science foundation of China (31601486, 31771985), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (451170301197), Jilin Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Functional Food (20160622030JC), and the Program of JLU Science and Technology Innovative Research Team (JLUSTIRT).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Nutrition and Functional FoodJilin UniversityChangchunPeople’s Republic of China

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