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Role of Bioactive Peptides in Reducing the Severity of Hypertension with the Inhibition of ACE

  • Muhammad Zohaib Aslam
  • Muhammd Shoaib Aslam
  • Shumaila Firdos
  • Ghulam Ghous
  • Gulistan Firdos
  • Zhao Hongfei
  • Zhang BolinEmail author
Article

Abstract

Bovine milk protein, fermented with LC (Lactobacillus casei) was used to evaluate its ACE inhibitory activity in-vitro. After evaluating the health status of animals by running hemto-chemical tests, four young dairy animals (22, 26, 30 and 34 months old) were selected on the basis of serum protein level for milk collection. Twenty-two months old animal was considered as control. After co-culturing of skim milk with LC for 24 h, peptide samples were purified via ultrafiltration by using Molecular weight cut-off; 10000 Da (PM-10) membrane. Protein hydrolysis was confirmed by applying ninhydrin reaction and SDS–PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Milk of 34-months old animal (D-34) showed greater ACE inhibitory activity in-vitro via ACE inhibitory assay. Moreover, D-34 was further analyzed for its peptides profile by using Q exactive Hybrid Quadrapole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry as shown in Graphical abstract. Peptides with higher concentration of Proline, Lysine and aromatic amino acid was identified and higher concentration of hydrophobic aliphatic amino acids in PIN-94 and PIN-332 indicated the usefulness of D-34 as ACE-inhibitor. On the basis of those hydrophobic amino acids it was concluded that Serum protein and milk protein level are interconnected and milk of middle-aged Animals with higher serum protein level is useful to inhibit ACE because with the growth of animal, serum protein contents also increases and those protein contents indicate the health status of the animal. Fermented milk peptides of middle-aged animals can be used as functional food and nutraceutical to reduce hypertension.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Peptides Bovine ACE inhibition Hypertension Fermented milk Hydrophobic amino acids 

Notes

Funding

This research was done with funding of Beijing Key Laboratory of Food Processing and Safety, School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University (China). No funding was received by any agency.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

We declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Zohaib Aslam
    • 1
  • Muhammd Shoaib Aslam
    • 2
  • Shumaila Firdos
    • 3
  • Ghulam Ghous
    • 4
  • Gulistan Firdos
    • 4
  • Zhao Hongfei
    • 1
  • Zhang Bolin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Food Processing and SafetyBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Forest economics and managementBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Punjab Livestock and dairy development departmentLahorePakistan
  4. 4.Institute of Chemical SciencesBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan

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