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A Study on Phytochemicals from Medicinal Plants Against Multidrug Resistant Streptococcus mutans

  • Chowdaiah Malyavantam 
  • Priyamvada Sharma
  • Dhamodhar Prakash 
Article
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Abstract

Microbial drug resistance is creating severe problems worldwide. Medicinal important plants are a rich source of phytochemicals. These active compounds have antimicrobial and anticancer properties. Over a period of years, various plants based active compounds and its active principles have been analyzed for phytochemicals with antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans but this study was conducted on phytochemicals against multi-drug resistant S. mutans from dental plaque samples. Identification and isolation of S. mutans from dental plaque was done by using standard tests like Gram staining, phenol red test and blood agar hemolysis. Sensitivity/resistance pattern was done by antimicrobial sensitivity test by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion test. Phytochemical extraction from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) seed (MFS) and leaves (MFL), cloves (Syzigium aromaticam), Punica granatum fruit peel (PGP), Morus alba L. plant type I (MLP I) and M. alba L. plant type II leaves (MLP II) were done using solvent maceration with methanol, ethanol and water. Extracts were tested for antimicrobial properties against multidrug resistant S. mutans using antibiotic sensitivity test by agar well diffusion method and then were subjected for screening and identification of active phytochemical groups by chemical tests and high performance thin layer chromatography. The confirmatory analysis of the active compounds was done by using chromatography techniques: HPLC and GCMS. In the screening of medicinal plants clove bud, nutmeg seed and pomegranate peel showed effective antimicrobial activity against MDR S. mutans. The minimum inhibitory concentration for pomegranate peel was found to be 20 mg/ml, for clove 10 mg/ml and for Myristica seed 15 mg/ml.

Keywords

Medicinal plants Phytochemicals Maceration Chromatography Eugenol 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge Dr. Pratima Murthy and Dr. Vivek Benegal, HODs of The Centre for Addiction Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore for extended support for the use of facility at Drug Toxicology Laboratory.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

An approval was obtained from Ethical committee for the study.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chowdaiah Malyavantam 
    • 1
  • Priyamvada Sharma
    • 2
  • Dhamodhar Prakash 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyRamaiah Institute of TechnologyBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Centre for Addiction MedicineNational Institute of Mental Health and Neurological SciencesBangaloreIndia

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