Production of Bioactive Peptides in Tomato Seed Protein Isolate Fermented by Water Kefir Culture: Optimization of the Fermentation Conditions
- 134 Downloads
The aim of this work was to explore the use of protein isolate from tomato seed as a medium for the growth of water kefir mixture culture. Response surface methodology (RSM) and a central composite rotatable design were used to optimize the fermentation conditions of tomato seed isolate by water kefir mixture culture, including inoculum level, sucrose concentration and ascorbic acid concentrations, in order to improve cell growth and exopolysaccharides production. The models established showed that the values of R2 were high and the p-values < 0.0001 were also suitable for this experiment, which confirmed the effectiveness of these models. The evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of the isolate after 24 h of fermentation showed an improvement of about 74%. HPLC analysis showed a significant decrease of the concentration of total amino-acids exceeding 155%, especially for glutamic acid and aspartic acid. After 24 h of fermentation, the protein isolate contains respectively by about 41.27 and 20.29 mg/100 g of glutamic acid and aspartic acid. FTIR results showed that the fermentation favors the production of new amides and aromatic compounds. The results of these experiments indicated that RSM design is promising approach for the optimization of tomato isolate fermentation conditions, and that water kefir culture could degrade and convert the proteins into bioactive peptides that contribute positively in the improvement of antioxidant activity.
KeywordsTomato waste Water kefir culture Response surface methodology Bioactive peptides Antioxidant activity
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Garcia-Mora P, Frias J, Peñas E, Zielinski H, Giménez-Bastida JA, Wiczkowski W, Zielinska D, Martínez-Villaluenga C (2015) Simultaneous release of peptides and phenolics with antioxidant, ACE-inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities from pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. pinto) proteins by subtilisins. J Funct Foods 18:319–332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2015.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grobben GJ, Sikkema J, Smith MR, De Bont JAM (1995) Production of extracellular polysaccharides by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772 grown in a chemically defined medium. J Appl Bacteriol 79:103–107. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1995.tb03130.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Joglekar AM, May AT (1987) Product excellence through design of experiments. Cereal Foods World 32:857–868Google Scholar
- Mechmeche M, Kachouri F, Yaghlane H, Ksontini H, Setti K, Hamdi M (2017b) Kinetic analysis and mathematical modeling of growth parameters of Lactobacillus plantarum in protein-rich isolates from tomato seed. Food Sci Technol Int 23(2):128–141. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-016-0644-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moayedi A, Hashemi M, Safari M (2016) Valorization of tomato waste proteins through production of antioxidant and antibacterial hydrolysates by proteolytic Bacillus subtilis: optimization of fermentation conditions. J Food Sci Technol 53(1):391–400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1965-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sogi DS, Garg SK, Bawa AS (2002) Functional properties of seed meals and protein concentrates from tomato-processing waste. J Food Sci 67:2997–3001. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb08850.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wouters D, Bernaert N, Anno N, Van Droogenbroeck B, De Loose M, Van Bockstaele E, De Vuyst L (2013) Application’ and validation of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for controlled leek fermentations and their influence on the antioxidant properties of leek. Int J Food Microbiol 165:121–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.04.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar