Advertisement

Landscape Ecology

, Volume 34, Issue 10, pp 2323–2335 | Cite as

Environmental justice and park quality in an intermountain west gateway community: assessing the spatial autocorrelation

  • Shuolei Chen
  • Ole Russell SleipnessEmail author
  • Keith M. Christensen
  • David Feldon
  • Yannan Xu
Research Article
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

Context

Research on environmental justice issues, particularly unequal park distribution and quality, has found that communities’ minority density and socioeconomic status (SES) are often correlated with disparate park qualities. However, most studies of spatial relationships between park quality and socioeconomic factors employ simple statistical analyses, which do not account for potential spatial autocorrelations and their effects on validity.

Objectives

This study determines whether the distribution of park quality is spatially autocorrelated and assesses the associations among multiple indicators of environmental justice and both separate park features and overall park quality.

Methods

This study evaluates spatial relationships between park quality and multiple environmental justice indicators in Cache County, Utah following the spatial regression process conducted in R programming language. Both overall park quality and separate feature qualities were audited by the PARK (Parks, Activity, and Recreation among Kids) tool. Environmental justice indicators included minority density, poverty, unemployment, low-education, renter rate, and yard size.

Results

Results illustrate a spatial autocorrelation existing in park quality distribution, detecting the dependence of the variable for quantitative research. They also show significant correlations between park quality and environmental justice indicators.

Conclusions

The study’s spatial regression model is a model for analyzing the spatial data and avoids the autocorrelation which is overlooked by the normal statistical approaches. Also, variances of park quality can be accounted for by different environmental justice indicators, such as minority density, poverty, and yard size. This disclosure of disparate public resource quality treatment among different groups of individuals could inspire policy makers and city planners to correct these disparities.

Keywords

Spatial analysis and assessment Spatial regression Socioeconomic factor Minority Landscape design Urban planning Parks and recreation 

Notes

References

  1. Anselin L (1988) Spatial econometrics: methods and models. Kluwer Aceademic, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anselin L (2004) Exploring spatial data with GeoDaTM: a workbook. Urbana 51(61801):309Google Scholar
  3. Anselin L, Bera A (1998) Spatial dependence in linear regression models with an introduction to spatial econometrics. Handbook of Applied Economic Statistics, Marcel DekkerGoogle Scholar
  4. Aytur SA, Jones SA, Stransky M, Evenson KR (2015) Measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments: implications for research, policy, and practice. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep 9(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babey SH, Wolstein J, Krumholz S, Robertson B, Diamant AL (2013) Physical activity, park access and park use among California adolescents. UCLA Cent Health Policy Res 2013:1–8Google Scholar
  6. Basu S, Thibodeau TG (1998) Analysis of spatial autocorrelation in house prices. J Real Estate Financ Econ 17(1):61–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bedimo-Rung AL, Mowen AJ, Cohen DA (2005) The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: a conceptual model. Am J Prev Med 28(2):159–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bird ME, Datta GD, Van Hulst A, Kestens Y, Barnett TA (2015) A reliability assessment of a direct-observation park evaluation tool: the parks, activity and recreation among kids (PARK) tool. BMC Public Health 15(1):906PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boone CG, Buckley GL, Grove JM, Sister C (2009) Parks and people: an environmental justice inquiry in Baltimore, Maryland. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 99(4):767–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Byrne J, Wolch J (2009) Nature, race, and parks: past research and future directions for geographic research. Prog Hum Geogr 33(6):743–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen S, Christensen KM, Li S (2019) A comparison of park access with park need for children: a case study in Cache County, Utah. Landsc Urban Plan 187:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cliff A, Ord J (1973) Spatial autocorrelation. Pion, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Coen SE, Ross NA (2006) Exploring the material basis for health: characteristics of parks in Montreal neighborhoods with contrasting health outcomes. Health Place 12(4):361–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conway D, Li CQ, Wolch J, Kahle C, Jerrett M (2010) A spatial autocorrelation approach for examining the effects of urban greenspace on residential property values. J Real Estate Financ Econ 41(2):150–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crawford D, Timperio A, Giles-Corti B, Ball K, Hume C, Roberts R, Andrianopoulos N, Salmon J (2008) Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighborhood socioeconomic status? Health Place 14(4):889–893.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2007.11.002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dubin RA (1988) Estimation of regression coefficients in the presence of spatially autocorrelated error terms. Rev Econ Stat 70(3):466–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dubin RA (1992) Spatial autocorrelation and neighborhood quality. Reg Sci Urban Econ 22(3):433–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Estabrooks PA, Lee RE, Gyurcsik NC (2003) Resources for physical activity participation: does availability and accessibility differ by neighborhood socioeconomic status? Ann Behav Med 25(2):100–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fang J, Madhavan S, Bosworth W, Alderman MH (1998) Residential segre-gation and mortality in New York City. Soc Sci Med 47(4):469–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Floyd MF, Johnson CY (2002) Coming to terms with environmental justice in outdoor recreation: a conceptual discussion with research implications. Leis Sci 24(1):59–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilbert A, Chakraborty J (2011) Using geographically weighted regression for environmental justice analysis: cumulative cancer risks from air toxics in Florida. Soc Sci Res 40(1):273–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Page P, Popkin BM (2006) Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity. Pediatrics 117(2):417–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Howe J, McMahon ET, Propst L (2012) Balancing nature and commerce in gateway communities. Island Press, Washington D.CGoogle Scholar
  24. Hughey SM, Walsemann KM, Child S, Powers A, Reed JA, Kaczynski AT (2016) Using an environmental justice approach to examine the relationships between park availability and quality indicators, neighborhood disadvantage, and racial/ethnic composition. Landsc Urban Plan 148:159–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hurst N (2016) Racist history, lack of park-going culture among reasons for African Americans under-representation at National, State Parks: researchers say park systems should engage schools to bring children to parks at an early age. University of Missouri News Bureau, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaczynski AT, Potwarka LR, Saelens BE (2008) Association of park size, distance, and features with physical activity in neighborhood parks. Am J Public Health 98(8):1451–1456PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kaczynski AT, Stanis SAW, Besenyi GM (2012) Development and testing of a community stakeholder park audit tool. Am J Prev Med 42(3):242–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kirby JB, Kaneda T (2005) Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and access to health care. J Health Soc Behav 46(1):15–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Loukaitou-Sideris A, Stieglitz O (2002) Children in Los Angeles parks: a study of equity, quality, and children’s satisfaction with neighborhood parks. Town Plan Rev 73(4):467–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Louv R (2008) Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder. Algonquin books, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  31. Macintyre S, Ellaway A, Cummins S (2002) Place effects on health: how can we conceptualize, operationalise, and measure them? Soc Sci Med 55:125–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moore LV, Roux AVD, Evenson KR, McGinn AP, Brines SJ (2008) Availability of recreational resources in minority and low socioeconomic status areas. Am J Prev Med 34(1):16–22PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mowen AJ (2010) Parks, playgrounds and active living. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  34. Powell LM, Slater S, Chaloupka FJ, Harper D (2006) Availability of physical activity–related facilities and neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic characteristics: a national study. Am J Public Health 96(9):1676–1680PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW, Earls F (1997) Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 277(5328):918–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schwarz K, Fragkias M, Boone CG, Zhou W, McHale M, Grove JM (2015) Trees grow on money: urban tree canopy cover and environmental justice. PLoS ONE 10(4):e0122051.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122051 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Talen E (1997) The social equity of urban service distribution: an exploration of park access in Pueblo, Colorado, and Macon. Georgia. Urban Geography 18(6):521–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Taylor WC, Poston WSC, Jones L, Kraft MK (2006) Environmental justice: obesity, physical activity, and healthy eating. J Phys Act Health 3(s1):S30–S54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. United States Census Bureau (2014) American Community Survey. http://www.census.gov/acs/www/
  40. United States Census Bureau (2015) American Fact Finder. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml#none
  41. United States Census Bureau (2018) QuickFacts Cache County, Utah. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/cachecountyutah/LND110210
  42. Vaughan KB, Kaczynski AT, Stanis SAW, Besenyi GM, Bergstrom R, Heinrich KM (2013) Exploring the distribution of park availability, features, and quality across Kansas City, Missouri by income and race/ethnicity: an environmental justice investigation. Ann Behav Med 45(1):28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Williams DR, Collins C (2001) Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Rep 116(5):404–416PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuolei Chen
    • 1
  • Ole Russell Sleipness
    • 1
    Email author
  • Keith M. Christensen
    • 1
  • David Feldon
    • 2
  • Yannan Xu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental PlanningUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  2. 2.Department of Instructional Technology and Learning SciencesUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  3. 3.College of Forest Resource and EnvironmentNanjing Forestry UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations