Responses of small mammals to land restoration after mining
- 100 Downloads
Land degradation from mining influences biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. However, comparative studies using small mammal functional groups within rehabilitated mining sites are missing, despite their significant ecological contributions.
We investigated the recovery of small mammals according to their trophic guild and terrestriality in restored mining sites and analyzed whether they were influenced by restoration scheme (active or passive), restoration time, mineral type, body mass and invasive species. We were especially interested in whether functional groups showed different recovery patterns across time.
We classified small mammals into functional groups according to trophic levels distinguishing carnivores, herbivores and omnivores, and according to their terrestriality categorized as above ground-dwelling (AGD) and fossorial and/or ground-dwelling individuals (FGD). We studied small mammal recovery globally following restoration of mining sites based on a meta-analysis using effect sizes. Influences of environmental variables were investigated with linear mixed models using effect sizes as response variable.
We did not find significant differences for restoration scheme and time but we did for mineral type, body mass and invasive species in terms of population (abundance) recovery. Trajectories of functional group recoveries differed: FGD and herbivores quickly recovered after mining activities stopped, but declined later, whereas AGD, carnivores and omnivores recovered within the first few years or decades.
Our results highlight the different vulnerability of functional groups, and the importance of considering this in conservation interventions.
KeywordsRestoration Mining Small mammals Degradation Functional group Conservation
We thank the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the Ghanaian government (i.e. Ministry of Education) for supporting EAL’s PhD study in Germany.
- Collaboration for Environmental Evidence (2013) Guidelines for systematic review and evidence synthesis in environmental management. Version 4.2. Environ Evid, p 78Google Scholar
- Fox BJ (1982) The influence of disturbance (fire, mining) on ant and small mammal species diversity in Australian Heathland. In: Proceedings of the symposium on dynamics and management of Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Technical Report PSW-58. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Berkeley, Carlifonia, pp 213–219Google Scholar
- Gilbertson M (1996) Organochlorine contaminants in the Great Lakes. Ecol Appl 6:966–971Google Scholar
- Hinds PW (1999) Restoration following bauxite mining in Western Australia. Stud On-Line J 4:1–6Google Scholar
- Hinton JJ (2005) Communities and small-scale mining: an integrated review for development planning. World Bank Mining Group, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Hobba WA (1993) Effects of underground mining and mine collapse on the hydrology of selected basins in West Virginia. U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2384. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/wsp2384. Accessed 4 Dec 2018
- Hull Sieg C (1987) Great plains wildlife damage control workshop proceedings wildlife damage management, internet center for small mammals: pests or vital components of the ecosystem. Great Plains Wildl Damage Control Workshop Proc 97:88–92Google Scholar
- Jones KE, Bielby J, Cardillo M, Fritz SA, O’Dell J, Orme CDL, Safi K, Sechrest W, Boakes EH, Carbone C, Connolly C, Cutts MJ, Foster JK, Grenyer R, Habib M, Plaster CA, Price SA, Rigby EA, Rist J, Teacher A, Bininda-Emonds ORP, Gittleman JL, Mace GM, Purvis A (2009) PanTHERIA: a species-level database of life history, ecology, and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals. Ecology 90:2648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lemly D (2009) Aquatic hazard of selenium pollution from coal mining. In: Fosdyke GB (ed) Coal mining: research, technology and safety. Nova Science Publishers, New York, p 17Google Scholar
- Maurer BA, Brown JH, Dayan T, Enquist BJ, Ernest SKM, Hadly EA, Haskell JP, Jablonski D, Jones KE, Kaufman DM, Lyons SK, Niklas KJ, Porter WP, Roy K, Smith FA, Tiffney B, Willig MR (2004) Similarities in body size distributions of small-bodied flying vertebrates. Evol Ecol Res 6:783–797Google Scholar
- R Core Team (2017) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/
- Reichl C, Schatz M, Zsak G (2017) World mining data: minerals production (Vol. 32). WORLD MINING DATA C. Reichl, M. Schatz, G. Zsak Volume 32 Minerals Production Vienna 20 17 International Organizing Committee for the World Mining Congresses, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- Rhodes DH, Richmond ME (1983) The influence of soil moisture, texture, and temperature on nest-site selection and burrowing activity by the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum. In: Eastern pine and meadow vole symposia, p 173Google Scholar
- Rohatgi A (2017) WebPlotDigitizer—Extract data from plots, images, and maps. Version 4.0. https://automeris.io/WebPlotDigitizer/. Accessed 5 Jan 2018
- Ryszkowski L (1975) The ecosystem role of small mammals. Ecol Bull 19:139–145Google Scholar
- Sidorovich V, Solovej I, Sidorovich A, Rotenko I (2008) Effect of felling on the distribution of rodents and their predators in a transitional mixed forest. Polish J Ecol 56:309–321Google Scholar
- Torbert JL, Burger JA (2000) Forest land reclamation. Reclamation of drastically disturbed lands. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 371–398Google Scholar
- Turchin P (1998) Quantitative analysis of movement: measuring and modeling population redistribution in animals and plants. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
- Walser G (2000) Economic impact of world mining (IAEA-SM-362). In: International symposium on the uranium production cycle and the environment. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria), p 315Google Scholar
- World Bank (2008) Communities, artisanal and small-scale mining (CASM). http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTOGMC/Resources/CASMFACTSHEET.pdf. Accessed 3 Jan 2018