Perceived ecosystem services synergies, trade-offs, and bundles in European high nature value farming landscapes

  • Tobias PlieningerEmail author
  • Mario Torralba
  • Tibor Hartel
  • Nora Fagerholm
Research Article



Around 30% of European agricultural landscapes are classified as high nature value (HNV) farmlands. Current policies emphasize the multifunctionality of these landscapes, but little is known about the positive and negative associations of multiple ecosystem services within HNV farmland.


This study aims to identify perceived ecosystem services synergies, trade-offs, and bundles in agricultural landscapes of HNV from a socio-cultural perspective.


We performed a participatory mapping survey of 10 ecosystem services categories among 2301 rural residents in 13 European sites. We analyzed bivariate synergies and trade-offs between perceived ecosystem services through nonparametric correlation analyses. Spatial bundles of perceived ecosystem services were identified through hierarchical cluster analysis. Multinomial logit models were used to assess the influence of land cover on generating associations of ecosystem services.


We find two strong and 16 moderate synergies of perceived ecosystem services (out of 46 possible ecosystem services pairs), mainly among different cultural ecosystem services. We do not reveal moderate or strong trade-offs. We identify five spatial bundles of ecosystem services, termed “Ecosystem services coldspots”, “Wild harvesting ranges”, “Nature areas”, “Recreational spaces”, and “Ecosystem services hotspots”. Of all land-cover co-variates, natural areas, urban areas, and roads have the strongest explanatory power.


Our study complements prevailing biophysical and economic analyses of ecosystem services synergies, trade-offs and bundles by a spatially explicit, socio-cultural perspective. We conclude that socio-cultural mapping of ecosystem services is useful for understanding the perceived multifunctionality of a landscape.


Agricultural landscapes Cross-site analysis Ecosystem services bundles Landscape management PPGIS Socio-cultural valuation 



We particularly thank our local facilitators in the 13 study sites. We acknowledge funding through Grant 613520 from the European Commission (Project AGFORWARD, 7th Framework Program). This research contributes to the Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (

Supplementary material

10980_2019_775_MOESM1_ESM.docx (307 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 306 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social-Ecological Interactions in Agricultural SystemsUniversity of KasselWitzenhausenGermany
  2. 2.University of GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Biology and Ecology in Hungarian and Center of Systems Biology, Biodiversity and BioresourcesBabes-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania
  4. 4.Department of Geography and GeologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

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