Landscape Ecology

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 17–33 | Cite as

The value of linking paleoecological and neoecological perspectives to understand spatially-explicit ecosystem resilience

  • B. BumaEmail author
  • B. J. Harvey
  • D. G. Gavin
  • R. Kelly
  • T. Loboda
  • B. E. McNeil
  • J. R. Marlon
  • A. J. H. Meddens
  • J. L. Morris
  • K. F. Raffa
  • B. Shuman
  • E. A. H. Smithwick
  • K. K. McLauchlan



Predicting ecosystem resilience is a challenge, especially as climate change alters disturbance regimes and conditions for recovery. Recent research has highlighted the importance of spatially-explicit disturbance and resilience processes to long-term ecosystem dynamics. “Neoecological” approaches characterize resilience mechanisms at relatively fine spatio-temporal resolutions, but results are difficult to extrapolate across broad temporal scales or climatic ranges. Paleoecological methodologies can consider the effects of climates that differ from today. However, they are often limited to coarse-grained spatio-temporal resolutions.


In this synthesis, we describe implicit and explicit examples of studies that incorporate both neo- and paleoecological approaches. We propose ways to build on the strengths of both approaches in an explicit and proactive fashion.


Linking the two approaches is a powerful way to surpass their respective limitations. Aligning spatial scales is critical: Paleoecological sampling design should incorporate knowledge of the spatial characteristics of the disturbance process, and neoecological studies benefit from a longer-term context to their conclusions. In some cases, modeling can incorporate non-spatial data from paleoecological records or emerging spatial paleo-data networks with mechanistic disturbance/recovery processes that operate at fine spatiotemporal scales.


Linking these two complementary approaches is a powerful way to build a complete understanding of ecosystem disturbance and resilience.


Disturbance Resilience Paleoecology Climate change Synthesis Scale 



This manuscript developed from discussions at the Novus II workshop at Estes Park, Colorado, U.S.A. ( Financial support for the workshop was provided by NSF DEB-1145815 to KM, PH, DG, MM, and SP. We thank the reviewers for their helpful comments.


  1. Ager AA, Day MA, McHugh CW, Short K, Gilbertson-Day J, Finney MA, Calkin DE (2014) Wildfire exposure and fuel management on western US national forests. J Env Manage 145:54–70Google Scholar
  2. Allen CR, Angeler DG, Cumming GS, Folke C, Twidwell D, Uden DR (2016) Review: quantifying spatial resilience. J Appl Ecol 53(3):625–635Google Scholar
  3. Allen JRM, Hickler T, Singarayer JS, Sykes MT, Valdes PJ, Huntley B (2010) Last glacial vegetation of northern Eurasia. Quant Sci Rev 29:2604–2618Google Scholar
  4. Aranbarri J, González-Sampériz P, Valero-Garcés B, Moreno A, Gil-Romera G, Sevilla-Callejo M, García-Prieto E, Di Rita F, Mata MP, Morellón M, Magri D (2014) Rapid climatic changes and resilient vegetation during the Lateglacial and Holocene in a continental region of south-western Europe. Glob Planet Change 114:50–65Google Scholar
  5. Baker WL (2009) Fire ecology in Rocky Mountain landscapes. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  6. Berland A, Shuman B, Manson SM (2011) Simulated importance of dispersal, disturbance, and landscape history in long-term ecosystem change in the Big Woods of Minnesota. Ecosystems 14:398Google Scholar
  7. Bigio ER, Swetnam TW, Baisan CH (2016) Local-scale and regional climate controls on historical fire regimes in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. For Ecol Manage 360:311–322Google Scholar
  8. Blois JL, Gotelli NJ, Behrensmeyer AK, Faith JT, Lyons SK, Williams JW, Amatangelo KL, Bercovici A, Du A, Eronen JT, Graves GR (2014) A framework for evaluating the influence of climate, dispersal limitation, and biotic interactions using fossil pollen associations across the late quaternary. Ecography 37(11):1095–1108Google Scholar
  9. Boose ER, Chamberlin KE, Foster DR (2001) Landscape and regional impacts of hurricanes in New England. Ecol Mono 71(1):27–48Google Scholar
  10. Buma B (2018) Transitional climate mortality: slower warming may result in increased climate-induced mortality in some systems. Ecosphere 9(3):e02170Google Scholar
  11. Buma B, Barrett T (2015) Signs of disturbance disequilibrium and directional change in the world’s largest temperate rainforest. Glob Change Bio 21:3445–3454Google Scholar
  12. Buma B, Bisbing S, Krapek K, Wright G (2017) A foundation of ecology re-discovered: 100 years of succession on the William S Cooper permanent plots shows importance of contingency in community development. Ecology 98(6):1513–1523Google Scholar
  13. Buma B, Wessman CA (2011) Disturbance interactions can impact resilience mechanisms of forests. Ecosphere 2(5):art64Google Scholar
  14. Calder WJ, Parker D, Stopka CJ, Jimenez-Moreno G, Shuman BN (2015) Medieval warming initiated exceptionally large wildfire outbreaks in the Rocky Mountains. PNAS 112:13261–13266Google Scholar
  15. Calder WJ, Shuman BN (2017) Extensive wildfires, climate change, and an abrupt state change in subalpine ribbon forests, Colorado. Ecology 98(10):2585–2600Google Scholar
  16. Camp A, Oliver C, Hessburg P, Everett R (1997) Predicting late-successional fire refugia pre-dating European settlement in the Wenatchee Mountains. For Ecol Manage 95(1):63–77Google Scholar
  17. Cannon JB, O’Brien JJ, Loudermilk EL, Dickinson MB, Peterson CJ (2014) The influence of experimental wind disturbance on forest fuels and fire characteristics. For Ecol Manage 330:294–303Google Scholar
  18. Chazdon RL (2003) Tropical forest recovery: legacies of human impact and natural disturbances. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 6(1):51–71Google Scholar
  19. Chipman ML, Kling GW, Lundstrom CC, Hu FS (2016) Multiple thermo-erosional episodes during the past six millennia: implications for the response of Arctic permafrost to climate change. Geology 44:439–442Google Scholar
  20. Clark JS (1988) Effect of climate change on fire regimes in northwestern Minnesota. Nature 334(6179):233Google Scholar
  21. Collins BM, Lydersen JM, Everett RG, Fry DL, Stephens SL (2015) Novel characterization of landscape-level variability in historical vegetation structure. Ecol App 25(5):1167–1174Google Scholar
  22. Colombaroli D, Gavin DG, Morey AE, Thorndycraft VR (2018) High resolution lake sediment record reveals self-organized criticality in erosion processes regulated by internal feedbacks. Earth Surf Proc Land 43:2181–2192Google Scholar
  23. Cowles TR, McNeil BE, Eshleman KN, Deel LN, Townsend PA (2014) Does the spatial arrangement of disturbance within forested watersheds affect loadings of nitrogen to stream waters? A test using Landsat and synoptic stream water data. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 26:80–87Google Scholar
  24. Cumming GS (2011) Spatial resilience: integrating landscape ecology, resilience, and sustainability. Landscape Ecol 26:899–909Google Scholar
  25. Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S, Neilson RP, Ayres MP, Flannigan MD, Hanson PJ, Irland LC, Lugo AE, Peterson CJ, Simberloff D (2001) Climate change and forest disturbances: climate change can affect forests by altering the frequency, intensity, duration, and timing of fire, drought, introduced species, insect and pathogen outbreaks, hurricanes, windstorms, ice storms, or landslides. BioScience 51(9):723–734Google Scholar
  26. Davis M, Calcote R, Sugita S, Takahara H (1998) Patchy invasion and the origin of a hemlock-hardwoods forest mosaic. Ecology 79:2641–2659Google Scholar
  27. Dawson A, Paciorek CJ, McLachlan JS, Goring S, Williams JW, Jackson ST (2016) Quantifying pollen vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th century forest composition and pollen data. Quatern Sci Rev 137:156–175Google Scholar
  28. Deel LN, McNeil BE, Curtis PG, Serbin SP, Singh A, Eshleman KN, Townsend PA (2012) Relationship of a Landsat cumulative disturbance index to canopy nitrogen and forest structure. Remote Sens Environ 118:40–49Google Scholar
  29. Deevey ES, Flint RF (1957) Postglacial hypsithermal interval. Science 125(3240):182–184Google Scholar
  30. Delcourt HR, Delcourt PA (1988) Quaternary landscape ecology: relevant scales in space and time. Landscape Ecol 2(1):23–44Google Scholar
  31. Donnelly JP, Hawkes AD, Lane P, MacDonald D, Shuman BN, Toomey MR, van Hengstum PJ, Woodruff JD (2015) Climate forcing of unprecedented intense hurricane activity in the last 2000 years. Earth’s Future 3:49–65Google Scholar
  32. Donnelly JP, Woodruff JD (2007) Intense hurricane activity over the past 5,000 years controlled by El Nino and the West African monsoon. Nature 447:465–468Google Scholar
  33. Duguay SM, Arii K, Hooper M, Lechowicz MJ (2001) Ice storm damage and early recovery in an old-growth forest. Env Monit Assess 67(1):97–108Google Scholar
  34. Dymerski AD, Anhold JA, Munson AS (2001) Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) in central Utah, 1986–1998. West N Am Nat 61:19–24Google Scholar
  35. Edwards JS (1987) Insects of Aeolian ecosystems. Ann Rev Ent 32:163–179Google Scholar
  36. Elmore AJ, Nelson D, Craine J (2016) Earlier springs are causing reduced nitrogen availability in North American eastern deciduous forests. Nat Plants 2:16133Google Scholar
  37. Fahey RT, Stuart-Haëntjens EJ, Gough CM, De La Cruz A, Stockton E, Vogel CS, Curtis PS (2016) Evaluating forest subcanopy response to moderate severity disturbance and contribution to ecosystem-level productivity and resilience. For Ecol Manage 376:135Google Scholar
  38. Fahrig L (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34(1):487–515Google Scholar
  39. Foster DR, Boose ER (1992) Patterns of forest damage resulting from catastrophic wind in central New England, USA. J Eco 80(1):79–98Google Scholar
  40. Foster DR, Knight DH, Franklin JF (1998) Landscape pattern and legacies resulting from large, infrequent disturbances. Ecosystems 1(6):497–510Google Scholar
  41. Foster DR, Schoonmaker P, Pickett STA (1990) Insights from paleoecology to community ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 5(4):119–122Google Scholar
  42. Foster JR, Townsend PA, Mladenoff DJ (2013) Mapping asynchrony between gypsy moth egg-hatch and forest leaf-out: putting the phenological window hypothesis in a spatial context. For Ecol Manage 287:67–76Google Scholar
  43. Furniss MM, Furniss RL (1972) Scolytids (Coleoptera) on snowfields above timberline in Oregon and Washington. Can Ent 104:1471–1478Google Scholar
  44. Fyfe RM, Twiddle C, Sugita S, Gaillard MJ, Barratt P, Caseldine CJ, Dodson J, Edwards KJ, Farrell M, Froyd C, Grant MJ (2013) The Holocene vegetation cover of Britain and Ireland: overcoming problems of scale and discerning patterns of openness. Quat Sci Rev 73:132–148Google Scholar
  45. Gardner TA, Cote IM, Gill JA, Grant A, Watkinson AR (2005) Hurricanes and Caribbean coral reefs: impacts, recovery patterns, and role in long-term decline. Ecology 86(1):174–184Google Scholar
  46. Gavin DG, Brubaker LB, Lertzman KP (2003) An 1800-year record of the spatial and temporal distribution of fire from the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Can J For Res 33:573–586Google Scholar
  47. Giglio L, Randerson JT, Van der Werf GR, Kasibhatla PS, Collatz GJ, Morton DC, DeFries RS (2010) Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products. Biogeosciences 7(3):1171–1186Google Scholar
  48. Gill N, Kulakowski D, Sangermano F, Buma B (2017) Populus tremuloides seedling establishment: an underexplored vector for forest type conversion after multiple disturbances. For Ecol Manage 404:156–164Google Scholar
  49. Grimm EC (1983) Chronology and dynamics of vegetation change in the prairie woodland region of southern Minnesota, USA. New Phytol 93(2):311–350Google Scholar
  50. Grimm EC (1984) Fire and other factors controlling the big woods vegetation of Minnesota in the mid nineteenth century. Ecol Monogr 54(3):291–311Google Scholar
  51. Gunderson LH (2000) Ecological resilience—in theory and application. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 31(1):425–439Google Scholar
  52. Hajek AE, Tobin PC (2011) Introduced pathogens follow the invasion front of a spreading alien host. J Anim Ecol 80(6):1217–1226Google Scholar
  53. Hall M (2001) Repairing mountains: restoration, ecology, and wilderness in twentieth-century Utah. Environ Hist 6:584–610Google Scholar
  54. Hansen WD, Romme WH, Ba A, Turner MG (2016) Shifting ecological filters mediate postfire expansion of seedling aspen (Populus tremuloides) in Yellowstone. For Ecol Manage 362:218–230Google Scholar
  55. Hart SJ, Veblen TT, Mietkiewicz N, Kulakowski D (2015) Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation. PLoS One 10(5):e0127975Google Scholar
  56. Hart SJ, Veblen TT, Schneider D, Molotch NP (2017) Summer and winter drought drive the initiation and spread of spruce beetle outbreak. Ecology 98(10):2698–2707Google Scholar
  57. Harvey BJ, Donato DC, Turner MG (2016) High and dry: post-fire tree seedling establishment in subalpine forests decreases with post-fire drought and large stand-replacing burn patches. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 25(6):655–669Google Scholar
  58. Henne PD, Elkin C, Franke J, Colombaroli D, Calò C, La Mantia T, Pasta S, Conedera M, Dermody O, Tinner W (2015) Reviving extinct Mediterranean forest communities may improve ecosystem potential in a warmer future. Front Ecol Environ 13(7):356–362Google Scholar
  59. Hessl AE (2011) Pathways for climate change effects on fire: models, data, and uncertainties. Prog Phys Geogr 35:393–407Google Scholar
  60. Higuera PE, Briles CE, Whitlock C (2014) Fire-regime complacency and sensitivity to centennial-through millennial-scale climate change in Rocky Mountain subalpine forests, Colorado, USA. J Ecol 102:1429–1441Google Scholar
  61. Hoffman KM, Trant AJ, Nijland W, Starzomski BM (2018) Ecological legacies of fire detected using plot-level measurements and LiDAR in an old growth temperate rainforest. For Ecol Manage 424(15):11–20Google Scholar
  62. Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4(1):1–23Google Scholar
  63. Jackson ST, Hobbs RJ (2009) Ecological restoration in the light of ecological history. Science 325(5940):567–569Google Scholar
  64. Johnson DM, Liebhold AM, Bjørnstad ON (2006) Geographical variation in the periodicity of gypsy moth outbreaks. Ecography 29(3):367–374Google Scholar
  65. Johnstone JF, Allen CD, Franklin JF, Frelich LE, Harvey BJ, Higuera PE, Mack MC, Meentemeyer RK, Metz MR, Perry GL, Schoennagel T (2016) Changing disturbance regimes, ecological memory, and forest resilience. Front Ecol Environ 14(7):369–378Google Scholar
  66. Kasin I, Ellingsen VM, Asplund J, Ohlson M (2016) Spatial and temporal dynamics of the soil charcoal pool in relation to fire history in a boreal forest landscape. Can J For Res 47:28–35Google Scholar
  67. Kelly R, Chipman ML, Higuera PE, Stefanova I, Brubaker LB, Hu FS (2013) Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years. PNAS 110:13055–13060Google Scholar
  68. Kemp KB, Higuera PE, Morgan P (2016) Fire legacies impact conifer regeneration across environmental gradients in the US northern Rockies. Landscape Ecol 31(3):619–636Google Scholar
  69. Kranabetter JM, McLauchlan KK, Enders SK, Fraterrigo JM, Higuera PE, Morris JL, Rastetter EB, Barnes R, Buma B, Gavin DG, Gerhart LM (2016) A framework to assess biogeochemical response to ecosystem disturbance using nutrient partitioning ratios. Ecosystems 19(3):387–395Google Scholar
  70. Krapek J, Hennon PE, D’Amore DV, Buma B (2017) Despite available habitat, migration of climate-threatened tree appears punctuated with past pulse tied to Little Ice Age climate period. Divers Distrib 23(12):1381–1392Google Scholar
  71. Krawchuk MA, Haire SL, Coop J, Parisien MA, Whitman E, Chong G, Miller C (2016) Topographic and fire weather controls of fire refugia in forested ecosystems of northwestern North America. Ecosphere 7(12):1632Google Scholar
  72. Kulakowski D, Veblen TT (2007) Effect of prior disturbances on the extent and severity of wildfire in Colorado subalpine forests. Ecology 88(3):759–769Google Scholar
  73. Leys B, Brewer SC, McConaghy S, Mueller J, McLauchlan KK (2015) Fire history reconstruction in grassland ecosystems: amount of charcoal reflects local area burned. Environ Res Lett 10(11):114009Google Scholar
  74. Lindbladh M, Fraver S, Edvardsson J, Felton A (2013) Past forest composition, structures and processes—how paleoecology can contribute to forest conservation. Biol Cons 168:116–127Google Scholar
  75. Lindemann JD, Baker WL (2001) Attributes of blowdown patches from a severe wind event in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA. Landscape Ecol 16(4):313–325Google Scholar
  76. Lodge DJ, Winter D, González G, Clum N (2016) Effects of hurricane-felled tree trunks on soil carbon, nitrogen, microbial biomass, and root length in a wet tropical forest. Forests 7(11):264Google Scholar
  77. Lovett GM, Christenson LM, Groffman PM, Jones CG, Hart JE, Mitchell MJ (2002) Insect defoliation and nitrogen cycling in forests. BioScience 52(4):335–341Google Scholar
  78. Lynch JA, Clark JS, Stocks BJ (2004) Charcoal production, dispersal, and deposition from the Fort Providence experimental fire: interpreting fire regimes from charcoal records in boreal forests. Can J For Res 34(8):1642–1656Google Scholar
  79. MacGillivray CW, Grime JP (1995) Testing predictions of the resistance and resilience of vegetation subjected to extreme events. Funct Ecol 9:640–649Google Scholar
  80. Marlon J, Bartlein P, Carcaillet C, Gavin DG, Harrison SP, Higuera PE, Joos F, Power MJ, Prentice CI (2008) Climate and human influences on global biomass burning over the past two millennia. Nat Geosci 1:697–701Google Scholar
  81. Marlon JR, Bartlein PJ, Gavin DG, Long CJ, Anderson RS, Briles CE, Brown KJ, Colombaroli D, Hallett DJ, Power MJ, Scharf EA, Walsh MK (2012) Long-term perspective on wildfires in the western USA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:E535–E543Google Scholar
  82. McBride JR (1983) Analysis of tree rings and fire scars to establish fire history. Tree-Ring Bull 43:51–67Google Scholar
  83. McLauchlan KK, Higuera PE, Gavin DG, Perakis SS, Mack MC, Alexander H, Battles J, Biondi F, Buma B, Colombaroli D, Enders SK (2014) Reconstructing disturbances and their biogeochemical consequences over multiple timescales. BioScience 64(2):105–116Google Scholar
  84. McWethy DB, Whitlock C, Wilmshurst JM, McGlone MS, Li X (2009) Rapid deforestation of south island, New Zealand, by early Polynesian fires. Holocene 19(6):883–897Google Scholar
  85. McWethy DB, Wilmshurst JM, Whitlock C, Wood JR, McGlone MS (2014) A High-Resolution Chronology of Rapid Forest Transitions following Polynesian Arrival in New Zealand. PLoS ONE 9:9Google Scholar
  86. Meddens AJH, Hicke JA, Vierling LA, Hudak AT (2013) Evaluating methods to detect bark beetle-caused tree mortality using single-date and multi-date Landsat imagery. Rem Sens Environ 132:49–58Google Scholar
  87. Mehl IK, Hjelle KL (2015) From pollen percentage to regional vegetation cover—a new insight into cultural landscape development in western Norway. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 217:45–60Google Scholar
  88. Millar CI, Stephenson NL, Stephens SL (2007) Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecol App 17(8):2145–2151Google Scholar
  89. Minckley TA, Shriver RK, Shuman BN (2012) Resilience and regime change in a southern Rocky Mountain ecosystem during the past 17000 years. Ecol Monogr 82:49–68Google Scholar
  90. Montoro Girona M, Navarro L, Morin H (2018) A secret hidden in the sediments: Lepidoptera scales. Front Ecol Evol. Google Scholar
  91. Morin RS, Liebhold AM (2015) Invasions by two non-native insects alter regional forest species composition and successional trajectories. For Ecol Manag 341:67–74Google Scholar
  92. Morris JL, DeRose RJ, Brunelle AR (2015) Long-term landscape changes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in central Utah, USA. Forest Ecosyst 2:35Google Scholar
  93. Morris JL, le Roux PC, Macharia AN, Brunelle A, Hebertson EG, Lundeen ZJ (2013) Organic, elemental, and geochemical contributions to lake sediment deposits during severe spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) disturbances. For Ecol Manage 289:78–89Google Scholar
  94. Mustaphi CJC, Pisaric MF (2013) Varying influence of climate and aspect as controls of montane forest fire regimes during the late Holocene, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada. J Biogeogr 40(10):1983–1996Google Scholar
  95. Mustaphi CJC, Pisaric MF (2014) Holocene climate–fire–vegetation interactions at a subalpine watershed in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. Quant Res 81(2):228–239Google Scholar
  96. Nelson DM, Hu FS, Grimm EC, Curry BB, Slate JE (2006) The influence of aridity and fire on Holocene prairie communities in the eastern Prairie Peninsula. Ecology 87(10):2523–2536Google Scholar
  97. Ogden J, Basher LES, McGlone M (1998) Botanical briefing fire, forest regeneration and links with early human habitation: evidence from New Zealand. Ann Bot 81(6):687–696Google Scholar
  98. Peltzer DA, Wardle DA, Allison VJ, Baisden WT, Bardgett RD, Chadwick OA, Condron LM, Parfitt RL, Porder S, Richardson SJ, Turner BL (2010) Understanding ecosystem retrogression. Ecol Mono 80(4):509–529Google Scholar
  99. Perry GL, Wilmshurst JM, McGlone MS (2014) Ecology and long-term history of fire in New Zealand. N Z J Ecol 38:157–176Google Scholar
  100. Perry GL, Wilmshurst JM, McGlone MS, McWethy DB, Whitlock C (2012) Explaining fire-driven landscape transformation during the initial burning period of New Zealand’s prehistory. Glob Change Bio 18(5):1609–1621Google Scholar
  101. Pickett STA, White PS (1985) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, New York, p 472Google Scholar
  102. Raffa KF, Aukema BH, Bentz BJ, Carroll AL, Hicke JA, Turner MG, Romme WH (2008) Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: the dynamics of bark beetle eruptions. BioScience 58(6):501–517Google Scholar
  103. Reilly JR, Hajek AE, Liebhold AM, Plymale R (2014) Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather. Environ Entomol 43(3):632–641Google Scholar
  104. Romme WH, Whitby TG, Tinker DB, Turner MG (2016) Deterministic and stochastic processes lead to divergence in plant communities 25 years after the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Ecol Monogr 86(3):327–351Google Scholar
  105. Rustad LE, Campbell JL (2012) A novel ice storm manipulation experiment in a northern hardwood forest. Can J For Res 42(10):1810–1818Google Scholar
  106. Schoonmaker PK, Foster DR (1991) Some implications of paleoecology for contemporary ecology. Bot Rev 57(3):204–245Google Scholar
  107. Schultz JC, Baldwin IT (1982) Oak leaf quality declines in response to defoliation by gypsy moth larvae. Science 217(4555):149–151Google Scholar
  108. Seidl R, Donato DC, Raffa KF, Turner MG (2016) Spatial variability in tree regeneration after wildfire delays and dampens future bark beetle outbreaks. PNAS 113:15263Google Scholar
  109. Seppä H, Alenius T, Muukkonen P, Giesecke T, Miller PA, Ojala AE (2009) Calibrated pollen accumulation rates as a basis for quantitative tree biomass reconstructions. Holocene 19(2):209–220Google Scholar
  110. Serra-Diaz JM, Scheller RM, Syphard AD, Franklin J (2015) Disturbance and climate microrefugia mediate tree range shifts during climate change. Landsc Ecol 30(6):1039–1053Google Scholar
  111. Sherriff RL, Berg EE, Miller AE (2011) Climate variability and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks in south-central and southwest Alaska. Ecology 92(7):1459–1470Google Scholar
  112. Sherriff RL, Platt RV, Veblen TT, Schoennagel TL, Gartner MH (2014) Historical, observed, and modeled wildfire severity in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range. PLoS ONE 9(9):106971Google Scholar
  113. Shuman B, Newby P, Huang Y, Webb III T (2004) Evidence for the close climatic control of New England vegetation history. Ecology 85(5):1297–1310Google Scholar
  114. Shuman B, Henderson AK, Plank C, Stefanova I, Ziegler SS (2009) Woodland-to-forest transition during prolonged drought in Minnesota after ca. AD 1300. Ecology 90(10):2792–2807Google Scholar
  115. Sinton DS (1996) Spatial and temporal patterns of windthrow in the Bull Run Watershed, Oregon. PhD thesis, Oregon State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  116. Sugimura WY, Sprugel DG, Brubaker LB, Higuera PE (2008) Millennial-scale changes in local vegetation and fire regimes on Mount Constitution, Orcas Island, Washington, USA, using small hollow sediments. Can J For Res 38:539–552Google Scholar
  117. Sundstrom SM, Eason T, Nelson RJ, Angeler DG, Barichievy C, Garmestani AS, Graham NA, Granholm D, Gunderson L, Knutson M, Nash KL (2017) Detecting spatial regimes in ecosystems. Ecol Lett 20(1):19–32Google Scholar
  118. Tepley AJ, Veblen TT, Perry GLW, Stewart GH, Naficy CE (2016) Positive feedbacks to fire-driven deforestation following human colonization of the South Island of New Zealand. Ecosystems 19:1325–1344Google Scholar
  119. Townsend PA, Eshleman KN, Welcker C (2004) Remote sensing of gypsy moth defoliation to assess variations in stream nitrogen concentrations. Ecol Appl 14:504–516Google Scholar
  120. Turner MG, Dale VH (1998) Comparing large, infrequent disturbances: what have we learned? Ecosystem 1(6):493–496Google Scholar
  121. Turner MG, Romme WH (1994) Landscape dynamics in crown fire ecosystems. Landscape Ecol 9:59–77Google Scholar
  122. Turner MG, Romme WH, Tinker DB (2003) Surprises and lessons from the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Front Ecol Environ 1(7):351–358Google Scholar
  123. Ulanova NG (2000) The effects of windthrow on forests at different spatial scales: a review. For Ecol Manag 135(1–3):155–167Google Scholar
  124. Umbanhowar CE (2004) Interaction of fire, climate, and vegetation change at a large landscape scale in the Big Woods of Minnesota, USA. Holocene 14(5):661–676Google Scholar
  125. van de Leemput IA, van Nes EH, Scheffer M (2015) Resilience of alternative states in spatially extended ecosystems. PLoS ONE 10(2):e0116859Google Scholar
  126. Walker LR, Zarin DJ, Fetcher N, Myster RW, Johnson AH (1996) Ecosystem development and plant succession on landslides in the Caribbean. Biotropica 28:566–576Google Scholar
  127. Wallin KF, Raffa KF (2004) Feedback between individual host selection behavior and population dynamics in an eruptive herbivore. Ecol Monogr 74(1):101–116Google Scholar
  128. Webb T (1986) Is vegetation in equilibrium with climate? How to interpret late-Quaternary pollen data. Vegetation 67(2):75–91Google Scholar
  129. Whitlock C, Larsen C (2002) Charcoal as a fire proxy. In: Last WM, Smol JP (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Springer, Amsterdam, pp 75–97Google Scholar
  130. Williams JW, Blois JL, Shuman BN (2011) Extrinsic and intrinsic forcing of abrupt ecological change: case studies from the late Quaternary. J Ecol 99(3):664–677Google Scholar
  131. Willis KJ, Bailey RM, Bhagwat SA, Birks HJB (2010) Biodiversity baselines, thresholds and resilience: testing predictions and assumptions using palaeoecological data. Trends Ecol Evol 25(10):583–591Google Scholar
  132. Wilson SD, Tilman D (2002) Quadratic variation in old-field species richness along gradients of disturbance and nitrogen. Ecology 83(2):492–504Google Scholar
  133. Winkler MG (1985) A 12,000-year history of vegetation and climate for Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Quat Res 23(3):301–312Google Scholar
  134. Wright HE (1974) Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management. Science 186(4163):487–495Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Buma
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. J. Harvey
    • 2
  • D. G. Gavin
    • 3
  • R. Kelly
    • 4
  • T. Loboda
    • 5
  • B. E. McNeil
    • 6
  • J. R. Marlon
    • 7
  • A. J. H. Meddens
    • 8
  • J. L. Morris
    • 9
  • K. F. Raffa
    • 10
  • B. Shuman
    • 11
  • E. A. H. Smithwick
    • 12
  • K. K. McLauchlan
    • 13
  1. 1.University of Colorado, DenverDenverUSA
  2. 2.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.University of OregonEugeneUSA
  4. 4.University of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  5. 5.University of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  6. 6.West Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  7. 7.Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  8. 8.University of IdahoMoscowUSA
  9. 9.University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  10. 10.University of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  11. 11.University of WyomingLaramieUSA
  12. 12.The Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  13. 13.Kansas State UniversityManhattanUSA

Personalised recommendations