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Featured characteristics and pivotal roles of satellite cells in skeletal muscle regeneration

  • Taejeong SongEmail author
  • Sakthivel Sadayappan
Article

Abstract

Skeletal muscle, the essential organ for locomotion, as well as energy reservoir and expenditure, has robust regenerative capacity in response to mechanical stress and injury. As muscle-specific stem cells, satellite cells are responsible for providing new myoblasts during the process of muscle growth and regeneration. Self-renewal capacity and the fate of satellite cells are highly regulated and influenced by their surrounding factors, such as extracellular matrix and soluble proteins. The strong myogenic potential of satellite cells makes them a potential resource for stem cell therapy to cure genetic muscle disease and repair injured muscle. Here, we both review key features of satellite cells during skeletal muscle development and regeneration and summarize recent outcomes of satellite cell transplantation studies.

Keywords

Skeletal muscle Extracellular matrix Muscle regeneration Muscle injury 

Abbreviations

Akt

Also known as protein kinase B (PKB)

Bcl-1

Also known as cyclin D1

bHLH

Basic helix-loop-helix

CCR2

C–C chemokine receptor type2

CldU

Chlorodeoxyuridine

CSA

Cross sectional area

CX3CR1

C-X3-C motif chemokine receptor 1

CXCL16

C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16

ECM

Extracellular matrix

EDL

Extensor digitorum longus

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinases

FACS

Fluorescence-activated cell sorting

FOXOs

Forkhead box Os

GPI

Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase

hMPC

Human myogenic progenitor cells

IdU

Iododeoxyuridine

IGF-1

Insulin like growth factor-1

M1

Inflammatory monocyte/macrophage

M2

Anti-inflammatory monocyte/macrophage

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinases

MDX

X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy

MGF

Mechano growth factor

MO/MP

Monocytes/macrophages

MPC

Muscle progenitor cells

MRF4

Myogenic regulatory factor 4

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

Myf5

Myogenic factor 5

NCAM

Neural cell adhesion molecule

NMM2

Nonmuscle myosin 2

PAR1

Protease-activated receptors 1

Pax

Paired box genes

PhK

Phosphorylase kinase

PI3K

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases

SOXF

SOX gene family

TA

Tibialis anterior

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor-beta

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Notes

Acknowledgements

Dr. Sadayappan has received support from National Institutes of Health Grants R01 HL130356, R56 HL139680, R01 AR067279, and R01 HL105826; the American Heart Association 2019 Institutional Undergraduate Student (19UFEL34380251) awards; and AstraZeneca, Merck and Amgen. Dr. Song is a recipient of a postdoctoral fellowship (19POST34380448) from the American Heart Association. Eric P. Smith, MD, Academic Research Services, Department of Internal Medicine, Cincinnati College of Medicine assisted in editing the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Dr. Sadayappan has provided consulting and collaborative services to AstraZeneca, Merck and Amgen unrelated to the content of this manuscript. No other disclosures are reported.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Health and Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart, Lung and Vascular InstituteUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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