Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility

, Volume 40, Issue 3–4, pp 291–297 | Cite as

Biotoxins in muscle regeneration research

  • Mohamed A. A. MahdyEmail author


Skeletal muscles are characterized by their unique regenerative capacity following injury due to the presence of muscle precursor cells, satellite cells. This characteristic allows researchers to study muscle regeneration using experimental injury models. These injury models should be stable and reproducible. Variety of injury models have been used, among which the intramuscular injection of myotoxic biotoxins is considered the most common and widespread method in muscle regeneration research. By using isolated biotoxins, researchers could induce acute muscle damage and regeneration in a controlled and reproducible manner. Therefore, it is considered an easy method for inducing muscle injury in order to understand the different mechanisms involved in muscle injuries and tissue response following injury. However, different toxins and venoms have different compositions and subsequently the possible effects of these toxins on skeletal muscle vary according to their composition. Moreover, regeneration of injured muscle by venoms and toxins varies according to the target of toxin or venom. Therefore, it is essential for researcher to be aware of the mechanism and possible target of toxin-induced injury. The current paper provides an overview of the biotoxins used in skeletal muscle research.


Biotoxins Snake venom Muscle injury Regeneration 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declare that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The authors declare that this paper complies with ethical standards in publishing.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineSouth Valley UniversityQenaEgypt

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