Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics of an unmodified diesel engine running on the ternary blends of pentanol/safflower oil biodiesel/diesel fuel

  • 50 Accesses


The objective of the present study is to scrutinize the influence of a binary blend of diesel–safflower oil biodiesel and ternary blends of diesel–biodiesel–pentanol on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel power generator. The test fuels were prepared on volume basis by splash blending and named as follows: B20, B20P5, B20P10, B20P15, and B20P20. The tests were carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, naturally aspirated, and direct-injection diesel engine at four engine loads with a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. According to the results, ternary blends vaguely reduced BTE while increased BSFC up to 13.90% as compared to diesel. In addition, an increase in pentanol concentration has a considerable effect on the decrease in NOX emissions. It is noted that the addition of pentanol to diesel–biodiesel blend caused to lower emissions (CO, HC, and smoke), whereas CO2 emission increased noticeably thanks to the more complete combustion due to the excess oxygen content. Reviewing combustion analysis results, pentanol addition led to decrease heat release rate and lower ignition delay up to 15% blend ratio compared to diesel. Based on the present study, pentanol can be evaluated as a promising type of higher alcohol for the compression ignition engines in the near future.

Graphic abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20



100% diesel fuel


100% biodiesel




Brake thermal efficiency


Brake-specific fuel consumption



CO2 :

Carbon dioxide


Carbon monoxide


Nitrogen oxides


Particulate matter


Brake mean effective pressure


Indicated mean effective pressure

CA (θ):

Crank angle


Start of combustion


Ignition delay






Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon


Exhaust gas recirculation


Before top dead center


Iodine value


Cetane number


Oxidation stability


Higher heating value


Coefficient of variations


Exhaust gas temperature


Heat release rate


Degree of unsaturation


Long-chain saturated factor


Free fatty acid


Saponification number

Q :

Energy amount

P :

Cylinder pressure

W net :

Net work

V stroke :

Swept volume of the cylinder

R :

The function of the independent variables

w :


D :

Number of double bonds

A i :

The proportion of each fatty acid

MMi :

Molecular mass of each fatty acid

\(\eta_{ }\) :

Kinematic viscosity

N s :

Number of double bonds in the saturated fatty acids

y :

Estimated value of the property

c :

Blending ratio

x :

Independent variables

v :

Titration solution volume

b :

Blank volume

m :

Oil sample mass

N :


V :

Cylinder volume

γ :

Specific heat ratio

\(\sigma\) :

Standard deviation

ϕ :

Respective property


  1. 1.

    Tamilvanan A, Balamurugan K, Vijayakumar M. Effects of nano-copper additive on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in CI engine. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;136(1):317–30.

  2. 2.

    Ashok B, Nanthagopal K, Darla S, Chyuan OH, Ramesh A, Jacob A, Sahil G, Thiyagarajan S, Geo VE. Comparative assessment of hexanol and decanol as oxygenated additives with calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel. Energy. 2019;173:494–510.

  3. 3.

    Demirbas A. Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods. Prog Energy Combust Sci. 2005;31(5–6):466–87.

  4. 4.

    Atabani AE, Silitonga AS, Badruddin IA, Mahlia TMI, Masjuki HH, Mekhilef S. A comprehensive review on biodiesel as an alternative energy resource and its characteristics. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2012;16:2070–93.

  5. 5.

    Xue J, Grift TE, Hansen AC. Effect of biodiesel on engine performances and emissions. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2011;15(2):1098–116.

  6. 6.

    Soares S, Rocha FR. Fast Spectrophotometric determination of iodine value in biodiesel and vegetable oils. J Braz Chem Soc. 2018;29(8):1701–6.

  7. 7.

    Ozsezen AN, Canakci M. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters. Energy Convers Manag. 2011;52:108–16.

  8. 8.

    Galavi M, Romroudi M, Tavassoli A. Effect of micronutrientes foliar application on yield and seed oil content of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Afr J Agric Res. 2012;7:482–6.

  9. 9.

    Ayas N, Yılmaz O. A shrinking core model and empirical kinetic approaches in supercritical CO2 extraction of safflower seed oil. J Supercrit Fluids. 2014;94:81–90.

  10. 10.

    Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/home/en/. Accessed 14 May 2019.

  11. 11.

    Çelebi Y, Aydın H. Investigation of the effects of butanol addition on safflower biodiesel usage as fuel in a generator diesel engine. Fuel. 2018;222:385–93.

  12. 12.

    Ilkılıç C, Aydın S, Behcet R, Aydin H. Biodiesel from safflower oil and its application in a diesel engine. Fuel Process Technol. 2011;92(3):356–62.

  13. 13.

    Al-Samaraae RR, Atabani AE, Uguz G, Kumar G, Arpa O, Ayanoglu A, Mohammed MN, Farouk H. Perspective of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Turkey: characterization, engine performance and emissions analyses of butanol–biodiesel–diesel blends. Biofuels. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/17597269.2017.1398956.

  14. 14.

    Ors I, Bakircioglu V. An experimental and ANNs study of the effects of safflower oil biodiesel on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a CI engine. Int J Automot Eng Technol. 2016;5(3):125–35.

  15. 15.

    Kul BS, Kahraman A. Energy and exergy analyses of a diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel–diesel blends containing 5% bioethanol. Entropy. 2016;18(11):387.

  16. 16.

    Venu H, Raju VD, Subramani L. Combined effect of influence of nano additives, combustion chamber geometry and injection timing in a DI diesel engine fuelled with ternary (diesel–biodiesel–ethanol) blends. Energy. 2019;174:386–406.

  17. 17.

    Keskin A, Resitoglu IA, Ozcanli M. Effects of butanol-ethanol and gasoline blends on specific fuel consumption and emissions in a spark ignition engine. Çukurova Univ Eng Architect Dep J. 2009;24:147–56.

  18. 18.

    Kumar BR, Saravanan S. Use of higher alcohol biofuels in diesel engines: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2016;60:84–115.

  19. 19.

    Li L, Wang J, Wang Z, Xiao J. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel/biodiesel/pentanol fuel blends. Fuel. 2015;156:211–8.

  20. 20.

    Campos-Fernández J, Amal JM, Gomez J, Lacalle N, Dorado MP. Performance tests of a diesel engine fueled with pentanol/diesel fuel blends. Fuel. 2013;107:866–72.

  21. 21.

    Yesilyurt MK. Investigating the effects of different alcohol additives in biodiesel–diesel fuel blends on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the diesel engines. PhD Thesis, Bozok University 2017.

  22. 22.

    Zhu L, Xiao Y, Cheung CS, Guan C, Huang Z. Combustion, gaseous and particulate emission of a diesel engine fueled with n-pentanol (C5 alcohol) blended with waste cooking oil biodiesel. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;102:73–9.

  23. 23.

    Imdadul HK, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Zulkifli NWM, Alabdulkarem A, Rashed MM, Teoh YH, How HG. Higher alcohol-biodiesel–diesel blends: an approach for improving the performance, emission, and combustion of a light-duty diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag. 2016;111:174–85.

  24. 24.

    Imdadul HK, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Zulkifli NWM, Alabdulkarem A, Kamruzzaman M, Rashed MM. A comparative study of C4 and C5 alcohol treated diesel-biodiesel blends in terms of diesel engine performance and exhaust emission. Fuel. 2016;179:281–8.

  25. 25.

    Atmanli A. Comparative analyses of diesel-waste oil biodiesel and propanol, n-butanol or 1-pentanol blends in a diesel engine. Fuel. 2016;176:209–15.

  26. 26.

    Wei LJ, Cheung CS, Huang ZH. Effect of n-pentanol addition on the combustion performance and emission characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine. Energy. 2014;70:172–80.

  27. 27.

    Nanthagopal K, Ashok B, Saravanan B, Patel D, Sudarshan B, Ramasamy RA. An assessment on the effects of 1-pentanol and 1-butanol as additives with Calophyllum Inophyllum biodiesel. Energy Convers Manag. 2018;158:70–80.

  28. 28.

    Devarajan Y, Nagappan BK, Munuswamy DB. Performance and emissions analysis on diesel engine fuelled with cashew nut shell biodiesel and pentanol blends. Korean J Chem Eng. 2017;34(4):1021–6.

  29. 29.

    Babu D, Anand R. Effect of biodiesel–diesel-n-pentanol and biodiesel–diesel-n-hexanol blends on diesel engine emission and combustion characteristics. Energy. 2017;133:761–76.

  30. 30.

    Dhanasekaran R, Krishnamoorthy V, Rana D, Saravanan S, Nagendran A, Kumar BR. A sustainable and eco-friendly fueling approach for direct-injection diesel engines using restaurant yellow grease and n-pentanol in blends with diesel fuel. Fuel. 2017;193:419–31.

  31. 31.

    Yilmaz N, Atmanli A. Experimental assessment of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-1-pentanol blends. Fuel. 2017;191:190–7.

  32. 32.

    Yilmaz N, Ileri E, Atmanli A. Performance of biodiesel/higher alcohols blends in a diesel engine. Int J Energy Res. 2016;40:1143–243.

  33. 33.

    Zhang ZH, Balasubramanian R. Investigation of particulate emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with higher alcohols/biodiesel blends. Appl Energy. 2016;163:71–80.

  34. 34.

    Imdadul HK, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Zulkifli NWM, Alabdulkarem A, Rashed MM, Ashraful AM. Influences of ignition improver additive on ternary (diesel-biodiesel-higher alcohol) blends thermal stability and diesel engine performance. Energy Convers Manag. 2016;123:252–64.

  35. 35.

    Chuah LF, Yusup S, Aziz ARA, Klemeš JJ, Bokhari A, Abdullah MZ. Influence of fatty acids content in non-edible oil for biodiesel properties. Clean Technol Environ Policy. 2016;18(2):473–82.

  36. 36.

    Bello EI, Agge M. Biodiesel production from ground nut oil. J Emerg Trends Eng Appl Sci. 2012;3(2):276–80.

  37. 37.

    Anand K, Sharma RP, Mehta PS. A comprehensive approach for estimating thermo-physical properties of biodiesel fuels. Appl Therm Eng. 2011;31:235–42.

  38. 38.

    Rathore V, Tyagi S, Newalkar B, Badoni RP. Jatropha and karanja oil derived DMC–biodiesel synthesis: a kinetics study. Fuel. 2015;140:597–608.

  39. 39.

    Correia LM, de Sousa Campelo N, Novaes DS, Cavalcante CL Jr, Cecilia JA, Rodríguez-Castellón E, Vieira RS. Characterization and application of dolomite as catalytic precursor for canola and sunflower oils for biodiesel production. Chem Eng J. 2015;269:35–43.

  40. 40.

    Ramos MJ, Fernández CM, Casas A, Rodríguez L, Pérez Á. Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100(1):261–8.

  41. 41.

    Ma F, Hanna MA. Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresour Technol. 1999;70:1–15.

  42. 42.

    Zullaikah S, Lai C, Vali SR, Ju Y. A two-step acid-catalyzed process for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil. Bioresour Technol. 2005;96:1889–96.

  43. 43.

    Helwani Z, Othman MR, Aziz N, Fernando WJN, Kim J. Technologies for production of biodiesel focusing on green catalytic techniques: a review. Fuel Process Technol. 2009;90:1502–14.

  44. 44.

    Atadashi IM, Aroua MK, Aziz AA, Sulaiman NMN. The effects of water on biodiesel production and refining technologies: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2012;16(5):3456–70.

  45. 45.

    Meng X, Chen G, Wang Y. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via alkali catalyst and its engine test. Fuel Process Technol. 2008;89:851–7.

  46. 46.

    Betiku E, Okunsolawo SS, Ajala SO, Odedele OS. Performance evaluation of artificial neural network coupled with generic algorithm and response surface methodology in modeling and optimization of biodiesel production process parameters from shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) nut butter. Renew Energy. 2015;76:408–17.

  47. 47.

    Jeyalakshmi P, Subramanian R. The application of response surface methodology for the optimization of pretreatment process parameters of paradise seed (Simarouba Glauca) oil. Energy Sources Part A. 2013;35:2087–95.

  48. 48.

    Djibril D, Lamine DM, Mamadou F. Biodiesel production from Neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil by its base-catalyzed transesterification and its blending with diesel. Res J Chem Sci. 2015;5:13–9.

  49. 49.

    Saydut A, Duz MZ, Kaya C, Kafadar AB, Hamamci C. Transesterified sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99(14):6656–60.

  50. 50.

    Manigandan S, Gunasekar P, Devipriya J, Nithya S. Emission and injection characteristics of corn biodiesel blends in diesel engine. Fuel. 2019;235:723–35.

  51. 51.

    Onukwuli DO, Emembolu LN, Ude CN, Aliozo SO, Menkiti MC. Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cotton seed oil and its characterization. Egypt J Pet. 2017;26(1):103–10.

  52. 52.

    Verma P, Sharma MP, Dwivedi G. Evaluation and enhancement of cold flow properties of palm oil and its biodiesel. Energy Rep. 2016;2:8–13.

  53. 53.

    Jham GN, Moser BR, Shah SN, Holser RA, Dhingra OD, Vaughn SF, Berhow MA, Winkler-Moser JK, Isbell TA, Holloway RK, Walter EL, Natalino R, Anderson JC, Stelly DM. Wild Brazilian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seed oil methyl esters as biodiesel fuel. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2009;86(9):917–26.

  54. 54.

    Rashid U, Anwar F, Moser BR, Ashraf S. Production of sunflower oil methyl esters by optimized alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. Biomass Bioenergy. 2008;32:1202–5.

  55. 55.

    Atapour M, Kariminia HR, Moslehabadi PM. Optimization of biodiesel production by alkali-catalyzed transesterification of used frying oil. Process Saf Environ. 2014;92:179–85.

  56. 56.

    Aksoy L. Biodiesel as a alternative energy source and its production process. Electr J Veh Technol. 2010;2(3):45–52 (in Turkish).

  57. 57.

    Sánchez M, Bergamin F, Peña E, Martínez M, Aracil J. A comparative study of the production of esters from Jatropha oil using different short-chain alcohols: optimization and characterization. Fuel. 2015;143:183–8.

  58. 58.

    Meneghetti SMP, Meneghetti MR, Wolf CR, Silva EC, Lima GES, Silva LL, Serra TM, Cauduro F, Oliveira LG. Biodiesel from castor oil: a comparison of ethanolysis versus methanolysis. Energy Fuels. 2006;20:2262–5.

  59. 59.

    Rashid U, Ibrahim M, Ali S, Adil M, Hina S, Bukhari IH, Yunus R. Comparative study of the methanolysis and ethanolysis of maize oils using alkaline catalysts. Grasas Aceites. 2012;63(1):35–43.

  60. 60.

    Jeyalakshmi P. Characterization of Simarouba glauca seed oil biodiesel. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;136(1):267–80.

  61. 61.

    Ramírez-Verduzco LF, Rodríguez-Rodríguez JE, Jaramillo-Jacob AR. Predicting cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel from its fatty acid methyl ester composition. Fuel. 2012;91(1):102–11.

  62. 62.

    Alagumalai A. Combustion characteristics of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil in a partial premixed charge compression ignition engine. Alex Eng J. 2015;54(3):405–13.

  63. 63.

    Holman P. Experimental methods for engineers. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.

  64. 64.

    Heywood JB. Internal combustion engine fundamentals. USA: McGraw-Hill; 1988.

  65. 65.

    Ibrahim A. Performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled by butanol–biodiesel–diesel blends. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;103:651–9.

  66. 66.

    Kumar S, Cho JH, Park J, Moon I. Advances in diesel–alcohol blends and their effects on the performance and emissions of diesel engines. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2013;22:46–72.

  67. 67.

    Yilmaz N, Vigil FM. Potential use of a blend of diesel, biodiesel, alcohols and vegetable oil in compression ignition engines. Fuel. 2014;124:168–72.

  68. 68.

    Makarevičienė V, Lebedevas S, Rapalis P, Gumbyte M, Skorupskaite V, Žaglinskis J. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel fuel containing microalgae oil methyl esters. Fuel. 2014;120:233–9.

  69. 69.

    Candan F, Ciniviz M, Ors I. Effect of cetane improver addition into diesel fuel-methanol mixtures on performance and emissions at different injection pressures. Therm Sci. 2017;21(1B):555–66.

  70. 70.

    Ong HC, Masjuki HH, Mahlia TMI, Silitonga AS, Chong WT, Leong KY. Optimization of biodiesel production and engine performance from high free fatty acid Calophyllum inophyllum oil in CI diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag. 2014;81:30–40.

  71. 71.

    Puhan S, Vedaraman N, Sankaranarayanan G, Ram BVB. Performance and emission study of Mahua oil (madhuca indica oil) ethyl ester in a 4-stroke natural aspirated direct injection diesel engine. Renew Energy. 2005;30(8):1269–78.

  72. 72.

    Devan PK, Mahalakshmi NV. Study of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using poon oil-based fuels. Fuel Process Technol. 2009;90(4):513–9.

  73. 73.

    Panwar NL, Shrirame HY, Rathore NS, Jindal S, Kurchania AK. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of castor seed oil. Appl Therm Eng. 2010;30(2–3):245–9.

  74. 74.

    Rakopoulos CD, Antonopoulos KA, Rakopoulos DC. Experimental heat release analysis and emissions of a HSDI diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel fuel blends. Energy. 2007;32:1791–808.

  75. 75.

    Anand K, Sharma RP, Mehta PS. Experimental investigations on combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of neat karanji biodiesel and its methanol blend in a diesel engine. Biomass Bioenergy. 2011;35(1):533–41.

  76. 76.

    Cheung CS, Zhu L, Huang Z. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and biodiesel blended with methanol. Atmos Environ. 2009;43(32):4865–72.

  77. 77.

    Yasin MH, Mamat R, Yusop AF, Aziz A, Najafi G. Comparative study on biodiesel–methanol–diesel low proportion blends operating with a diesel engine. Energy Proc. 2015;75:10–6.

  78. 78.

    Palash SM, Kalam MA, Masjuki HH, Masum BM, Fattah IR, Mofijur M. Impacts of biodiesel combustion on NOx emissions and their reduction approaches. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2013;23:473–90.

  79. 79.

    Cheikh K, Sary A, Khaled L, Abdelkrim L, Mohand T. Experimental assessment of performance and emissions maps for biodiesel fueled compression ignition engine. Appl Energy. 2016;161:320–9.

  80. 80.

    Anderson A, Devarajan Y, Nagappan B. Effect of injection parameters on the reduction of NOx emission in neat bio-diesel fuelled diesel engine. Energy Sources Part A. 2017;40(2):186–92.

  81. 81.

    Özçelik AE, Aydoğan H, Acaroğlu M. Determining the performance, emission and combustion properties of camelina biodiesel blends. Energy Convers Manag. 2015;96:47–57.

  82. 82.

    Mofijur M, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Atabani AE, Arbab MI, Cheng SF, Gouk SW. Properties and use of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and diesel fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag. 2014;82:169–76.

  83. 83.

    How HG, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Teoh YH, Chuah HG. Effect of Calophyllum Inophyllum biodiesel–diesel blends on combustion, performance, exhaust particulate matter and gaseous emissions in a multi-cylinder diesel engine. Fuel. 2018;227:154–64.

  84. 84.

    Rashed MM, Kalam MA, Masjuki HH, Mofijur M, Rasul MG, Zulkifli NWM. Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm, jatropha, and moringa oil methyl ester. Ind Crops Prod. 2016;79:70–6.

  85. 85.

    Karavalakis G, Stournas S, Bakeas E. Light vehicle regulated and unregulated emissions from different biodiesels. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:3338–46.

  86. 86.

    Kalligeros S, Zannikos F, Stournas S, Lois E, Anastopoulos G, Teas C, Sakellaropoulos F. An investigation of using biodiesel/marine diesel blends on the performance of a stationary diesel engine. Biomass Bioenergy. 2003;24(2):141–9.

  87. 87.

    Xue Y, Zhao W, Ma P, Zhao Z, Xu G, Yang C, Chen H, Lin H, Han S. Ternary blends of biodiesel with petro-diesel and diesel from direct coal liquefaction for improving the cold flow properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel. Fuel. 2016;177:46–52.

  88. 88.

    Puhan S, Vedaraman N, Ram BVB, Sankarnarayanan G, Jeychandran K. Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica seed oil) methyl ester as biodiesel-preparation and emission characterstics. Biomass Bioenergy. 2005;28:87–93.

  89. 89.

    Sahoo PK, Das LM, Babu MKG, Naik SN. Biodiesel development from high acid value polanga seed oil and performance evaluation in a CI engine. Fuel. 2007;86:448–54.

  90. 90.

    Lapuerta M, Armas O, Ballesteros R, Fernández J. Diesel emissions from biofuels derived from Spanish potential vegetable oils. Fuel. 2005;84:773–80.

  91. 91.

    Çelik M, Ors I, Bayindirli C, Demiralp M. Experimental investigation of impact of addition of bioethanol in different biodiesels, on performance, combustion and emission characteristics. J Mech Sci Technol. 2017;31(11):5581–92.

  92. 92.

    Mahalingam A, Munuswamy DB, Devarajan Y, Radhakrishnan S. Emission and performance analysis on the effect of exhaust gas recirculation in alcohol-biodiesel aspirated research diesel engine. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2018;25:12641–7.

  93. 93.

    Rizwanul Fattah IM, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Mofijur M, Abedin MJ. Effect of antioxidant on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel blends. Energy Convers Manag. 2014;79:265–72.

  94. 94.

    Mahalingam A, Devarajan Y, Radhakrishnan S, Vellaiyan S, Nagappan B. Emissions analysis on mahua oil biodiesel and higher alcohol blends in diesel engine. Alex Eng J. 2018;57(4):2627–31.

  95. 95.

    Sidharth, Kumar N. Performance and emission studies of ternary fuel blends of diesel, biodiesel and octanol. Energy Sources Part A. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2019.1607940.

  96. 96.

    Sharon H, Shiva Ram PJ, Fernando KJ, Murali S, Muthusamy R. Fueling a stationary direct injection diesel engine with diesel-used palm oil–butanol blends—an experimental study. Energy Convers Manag. 2013;73:95–105.

  97. 97.

    Ashok B, Nanthagopal K, Saravanan B, Azad K, Patel D, Sudarshan B, Ramasamy RA. Study on isobutanol and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel as a partial replacement in CI engine applications. Fuel. 2019;235:984–94.

  98. 98.

    EL-Seesy AI, Hassan H, Kosaka H. Improving the performance of a diesel engine operated with jojoba biodiesel–diesel–n-butanol ternary blends. Energy Proc. 2019;156:33–7.

  99. 99.

    Devarajan Y, Munuswamy DB, Mahalingam A. Performance, combustion and emission analysis on the effect of ferrofluid on neat biodiesel. Process Saf Environ Prot. 2017;111:283–91.

  100. 100.

    Behcet R, Aydın H, Ilkilic C, Iscan B, Aydin S. Diesel engine applications for evaluation of performance and emission behavior of biodiesel from different oil stocks. Environ Prog Sustain Energy. 2015;34(3):890–6.

  101. 101.

    Özsezen AN, Çanakçi M. An investigation of the effect of methyl ester produced from waste frying oil on the performance and emissions of an IDI diesel engine. J Facul Eng Architect Gazi Univ. 2008;23(2):395–404.

  102. 102.

    Sayın C. Diesel engine emissions improvements by the use of sun flower methyl ester/diesel blends. J Therm Sci Technol. 2013;33(2):83–8.

  103. 103.

    Hulwan DB, Joshi SV. Performance, emission and combustion characteristic of a multicylinder DI diesel engine running on diesel-ethanol-biodiesel blends of high ethanol content. Appl Energy. 2011;88(12):5042–55.

  104. 104.

    Sureshkumar K, Velraj R, Ganesan R. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel. Renew Energy. 2008;33(10):2294–302.

  105. 105.

    Randazzo ML, Sodre JR. Exhaust emissions from a diesel powered vehicle fuelled by soybean biodiesel blends (B3-B20) with ethanol as an additive (B20E2-B20E5). Fuel. 2011;90(1):98–103.

  106. 106.

    Alptekin E, Canakci M, Ozsezen AN, Turkcan A, Sanli H. Using waste animal fat based biodiesels-bioethanol-diesel fuel blends in a DI diesel engine. Fuel. 2015;157:245–54.

  107. 107.

    Akar MA. Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine operating with false flax biodiesel and butanol blends. Adv Mech Eng. 2016;8(2):1–7.

  108. 108.

    De Oliveira A, De Morais AMAM, Valente OS, Sodre JR. Combustion characteristics, performance and emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by B7-ethanol blends. Fuel Process Technol. 2015;139:67–72.

  109. 109.

    Ramesh A, Ashok B, Nanthagopal K, Pathy MR, Tambare A, Mali P, Phuke P, Patil S, Subbarao R. Influence of hexanol as additive with Calophyllum Inophyllum biodiesel for CI engine applications. Fuel. 2019;249:472–85.

  110. 110.

    Gumus M, Sayin C, Canakci M. The impact of fuel injection pressure on the exhaust emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with biodiesel–diesel fuel blends. Fuel. 2012;95:486–94.

  111. 111.

    Ajav EA, Singh B, Bhattacharya TK. Experimental study of some performance parameters of a constant speed stationary diesel engine using ethanol-diesel blends as fuel. Biomass Bioenergy. 1999;17(4):357–65.

  112. 112.

    Choi CY, Reitz RD. An experimental study on the effects of oxygenated fuel blends and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions. Fuel. 1999;78(11):1303–17.

  113. 113.

    Tuccar G, Ozgur T, Aydın K. Effect of diesel–microalgae biodiesel–butanol blends on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Fuel. 2014;132:47–52.

  114. 114.

    Dogan O. The influence of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends utilization on a small diesel engine performance and emissions. Fuel. 2011;90(7):2467–72.

  115. 115.

    Gonca G, Dobrucali E. Theoretical and experimental study on the performance of a diesel engine fueled with diesel–biodiesel blends. Renew Energy. 2016;93:658–66.

  116. 116.

    Rajesh Kumar B, Muthukkumar T, Krishnamoorthy V, Saravanan S. A comparative evaluation and optimization of performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with n-propanol/diesel, n-butanol/diesel and n-pentanol/diesel blends using response surface methodology. RSC Adv. 2016;6(66):61869–90.

  117. 117.

    Atmanli A, Ileri E, Yuksel B. Experimental investigation of engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with diesel–n-butanol–vegetable oil blends. Energy Convers Manag. 2014;81:312–21.

  118. 118.

    Gonca G, Dobrucali E. The effects of engine design and operating parameters on the performance of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel blends. J Renew Sustain Energy. 2016;8(2):025702.

  119. 119.

    Rajesh Kumar B, Saravanan S. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on performance and emissions of a constant speed DI diesel engine fueled with pentanol/diesel blends. Fuel. 2015;160:217–26.

  120. 120.

    Devarajan Y, Jayabal RK, Ragupathy D, Venu H. Emissions analysis on second generation biodiesel. Front Environ Sci Eng. 2016;11:1.

  121. 121.

    Devarajan Y, Munuswamy DB, Nagappan B. Emissions analysis on diesel engine fuelled with cashew nut shell biodiesel and pentanol blends. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2017;24(14):13136–41.

  122. 122.

    Li DG, Zhen H, Xingcai L, Wu-gao Z, Guang YJ. Physico-chemical properties of ethanol-diesel blends fuel and its effect on performance and emission of diesel engines. Renew Energy. 2005;30:967–76.

  123. 123.

    Yao M, Wang H, Zheng Z, Yue Y. Experimental study of n-butanol additive and multi-injection on HD diesel engine performance and emissions. Fuel. 2010;89:2191–201.

  124. 124.

    Ong HC, Masjuki HH, Mahlia TMI, Silitonga AS, Chong WT, Yusaf T. Engine performance and emissions using Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in a CI diesel engine. Energy. 2014;69:427–45.

  125. 125.

    Ren Y, Huang Z, Miao H, Di Y, Jiang D, Zeng K, Wang X. Combustion and emissions of a DI diesel engine fuelled with diesel-oxygenate blends. Fuel. 2008;87(12):2691–7.

  126. 126.

    Selvan T, Nagarajan G. Combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel having varying saturated fatty acid composition. Int J Green Energy. 2013;10:952–65.

  127. 127.

    Ozener O, Yüksek L, Ergenç AT, Özkan M. Effects of soybean biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics. Fuel. 2014;115:875–83.

  128. 128.

    Silitonga AS, Masjuki HH, Mahlia TMI, Ong HC, Chong WT. Experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with Ceiba pentandra biodiesel blends. Energy Convers Manag. 2013;76:828–36.

  129. 129.

    Chauhan BS, Kumar N, Cho HM. A study on the performance and emission of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel oil and its blends. Energy. 2012;37:616–22.

  130. 130.

    Aliyu B, Shitanda D, Walker S, Agnew B, Masheiti S, Atan R. Performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with Croton megalocarpus (musine) methyl ester. Appl Therm Eng. 2011;31(1):36–41.

  131. 131.

    Jeyakumar N, Narayanasamy B. Effect of Basil antioxidant additive on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of used cooking oil biodiesel in CI engine. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08699-3.

  132. 132.

    Hebbal OD, Reddy KV, Rajagopal K. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine with deccan hemp oil. Fuel. 2006;85(14–15):2187–94.

  133. 133.

    Rakopoulos DC. Combustion and emissions of cottonseed oil and its bio-diesel in blends with either n-butanol or diethyl ether in HSDI diesel engine. Fuel. 2013;105:603–13.

  134. 134.

    Emiroglu AO, Sen M. Combustion, performance and exhaust emission characterizations of a diesel engine operating with a ternary blend (alcohol–biodiesel–diesel fuel). Appl Therm Eng. 2018;133:371–80.

  135. 135.

    Rakopoulos DC, Rakopoulos CD, Kyritsis DC. Butanol or DEE blends with either straight vegetable oil or biodiesel excluding fossil fuel: comparative effects on diesel engine combustion attributes, cyclic variability and regulated emissions trade-off. Energy. 2016;115:314–25.

  136. 136.

    Yang K, Wei L, Cheung CS, Tang C, Huang Z. The effect of pentanol addition on the particulate emission characteristics of a biodiesel operated diesel engine. Fuel. 2017;209:132–40.

  137. 137.

    Siwale L, Kristóf L, Adam T, Bereczky A, Mbarawa M, Penninger A, Kolesnikov A. Combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol/diesel fuel blend in a turbo-charged compression ignition engine. Fuel. 2013;107:409–18.

  138. 138.

    Tsolakis A, Megaritis A, Wyszynski M, Theinnoi K. Engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine operating on diesel-RME (rapeseed methyl ester) blends with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). Energy. 2007;32(11):2072–80.

  139. 139.

    Yuvarajan D, Venkata Ramanan M. Experimental analysis on neat mustard oil methyl ester subjected to ultrasonication and microwave irradiation in four stroke single cylinder Diesel engine. J Mech Sci Technol. 2016;30(1):437–46.

  140. 140.

    Choi B, Jiang X. Individual hydrocarbons and particulate matter emission from a turbocharged CRDI diesel engine fueled with n-butanol/diesel blends. Fuel. 2015;154:188–95.

  141. 141.

    Ashok B, Jeevanantham AK, Nanthagopal K, Saravanan B, Kumar MS, Johny A, Mohan A, Kaisan MU, Abubakar S. An experimental analysis on the effect of n-pentanol-Calophyllum Inophyllum Biodiesel binary blends in CI engine characteristcis. Energy. 2019;173:290–305.

  142. 142.

    Tse H, Leung CW, Cheung CS. Investigation on the combustion characteristics and particulate emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. Energy. 2015;83:343–50.

  143. 143.

    Qi DH, Chen H, Geng LM, Bian YZ, Ren XC. Performance and combustion characteristics of biodiesel–diesel–methanol blend fuelled engine. Appl Energy. 2010;87(5):1679–86.

  144. 144.

    Anbarasu A, Saravanan M, Loganathan M. The effect of ethanol addition in a biodiesel operated DI diesel engine on combustion, performance, and emission characteristics. Int J Green Energy. 2013;10(1):90–102.

  145. 145.

    Balasubramanian K, Purushothaman K. Effect of acetylene addition on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of neem biodiesel and corn biodiesel-fueled CI engine. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;138(2):1405–14.

  146. 146.

    Lujaji F, Kristóf L, Bereczky A, Mbarawa M. Experimental investigation of fuel properties, engine performance, combustion and emissions of blends containing croton oil, butanol, and diesel on a CI engine. Fuel. 2011;90(2):505–10.

  147. 147.

    Madhankumar S, Stanley MJ, Thiyagarajan S, Geo VE, Karthickeyan V, Chen Z. Effect of oxygen enrichment on CI engine behavior fueled with vegetable oil: an experimental study. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-09179-4.

  148. 148.

    Murugapoopathi S, Vasudevan D. Performance, combustion and emission characteristics on VCR multi-fuel engine running on methyl esters of rubber seed oil. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;138(2):1329–43.

  149. 149.

    Gharehghani A, Mirsalim M, Hosseini R. Effects of waste fish oil biodiesel on diesel engine combustion characteristics and emission. Renew Energy. 2017;101:930–6.

  150. 150.

    Ibrahim A, Bari S. An experimental investigation on the use of EGR in a supercharged natural gas SI engine. Fuel. 2010;89(7):1721–30.

  151. 151.

    Gharehghani A, Hosseini R, Mirsalim M, Yusaf TF. A computational study of operating range extension in a natural gas SI engine with the use of hydrogen. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2015;40(17):5966–75.

  152. 152.

    Can Ö, Öztürk E, Yücesu HS. Combustion and exhaust emissions of canola biodiesel blends in a single cylinder DI diesel engine. Renew Energy. 2017;109:73–82.

  153. 153.

    Uyumaz A. Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with mustard oil biodiesel fuel blends at different engine loads. Fuel. 2018;212:256–67.

  154. 154.

    Praveena V, Martin MLJ, Geo VE. Experimental characterization of CI engine performance, combustion and emission parameters using various metal oxide nanoemulsion of grapeseed oil methyl ester. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08722-7.

  155. 155.

    Mahmudul HM, Hagos FY, Mamat R, Adam AA, Ishak WFW, Alenezi R. Production, characterization and performance of biodiesel as an alternative fuel in diesel engines—a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2017;72:497–509.

  156. 156.

    Fahd MEA, Lee PS, Chou SK, Wenming Y, Yap C. Experimental study and empirical correlation development of fuel properties of waste cooking palm biodiesel and its diesel blends at elevated temperatures. Renew Energy. 2014;68:282–8.

  157. 157.

    Siluvaimuthu S, Thiyagarajan S, Martin LJ, Nagalingam B. Comparative analysis of premixed combustion and blending of alcohols with neem and wintergreen oil biofuel blends in CI engine. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08956-5.

  158. 158.

    Yilmaz N, Atmanli A. Experimental evaluation of a diesel engine running on the blends of diesel and pentanol as a next generation higher alcohol. Fuel. 2017;210:75–82.

  159. 159.

    Ramakrishnan P, Kasimani R, Peer MS, Rajamohan S. Assessment of n-pentanol/Calophyllum inophyllum/diesel blends on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a constant-speed variable compression ratio direct injection diesel engine. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2018;25(14):13731–44.

Download references


The author would like to pay special thankfulness, warmth, and appreciation to Assoc. Professor M. ARSLAN, Head of Thermodynamic Division, Mechanical Engineering, Yozgat Bozok University, Turkey, for support, technical suggestions, and continuous motivation during the course of this work.


This study was supported by Scientific Research Projects Unit of Yozgat Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey, for financial support under the contact numbers of projects: 6602b-MÜH/19-274.

Author information

Correspondence to Murat Kadir Yesilyurt.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 11 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 786 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yesilyurt, M.K., Yilbasi, Z. & Aydin, M. The performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics of an unmodified diesel engine running on the ternary blends of pentanol/safflower oil biodiesel/diesel fuel. J Therm Anal Calorim (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09376-6

Download citation


  • Safflower oil
  • Biodiesel
  • Higher alcohol
  • Performance
  • Emission characteristics
  • Combustion behaviors