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The performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics of an unmodified diesel engine running on the ternary blends of pentanol/safflower oil biodiesel/diesel fuel

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Abstract

The objective of the present study is to scrutinize the influence of a binary blend of diesel–safflower oil biodiesel and ternary blends of diesel–biodiesel–pentanol on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel power generator. The test fuels were prepared on volume basis by splash blending and named as follows: B20, B20P5, B20P10, B20P15, and B20P20. The tests were carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, naturally aspirated, and direct-injection diesel engine at four engine loads with a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. According to the results, ternary blends vaguely reduced BTE while increased BSFC up to 13.90% as compared to diesel. In addition, an increase in pentanol concentration has a considerable effect on the decrease in NOX emissions. It is noted that the addition of pentanol to diesel–biodiesel blend caused to lower emissions (CO, HC, and smoke), whereas CO2 emission increased noticeably thanks to the more complete combustion due to the excess oxygen content. Reviewing combustion analysis results, pentanol addition led to decrease heat release rate and lower ignition delay up to 15% blend ratio compared to diesel. Based on the present study, pentanol can be evaluated as a promising type of higher alcohol for the compression ignition engines in the near future.

Graphic abstract

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Abbreviations

DF:

100% diesel fuel

BD:

100% biodiesel

P:

Pentanol

BTE:

Brake thermal efficiency

BSFC:

Brake-specific fuel consumption

HC:

Hydrocarbon

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

CO:

Carbon monoxide

NOX :

Nitrogen oxides

PM:

Particulate matter

BMEP:

Brake mean effective pressure

IMEP:

Indicated mean effective pressure

CA (θ):

Crank angle

SOC:

Start of combustion

ID:

Ignition delay

Pr:

Propanol

B:

Butanol

PAH:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

EGR:

Exhaust gas recirculation

bTDC:

Before top dead center

IV:

Iodine value

CN:

Cetane number

OS:

Oxidation stability

HHV:

Higher heating value

COV:

Coefficient of variations

EGT:

Exhaust gas temperature

HRR:

Heat release rate

DU:

Degree of unsaturation

LCSF:

Long-chain saturated factor

FFA:

Free fatty acid

SN:

Saponification number

Q :

Energy amount

P :

Cylinder pressure

W net :

Net work

V stroke :

Swept volume of the cylinder

R :

The function of the independent variables

w :

Uncertainty

D :

Number of double bonds

A i :

The proportion of each fatty acid

MMi :

Molecular mass of each fatty acid

\(\eta_{ }\) :

Kinematic viscosity

N s :

Number of double bonds in the saturated fatty acids

y :

Estimated value of the property

c :

Blending ratio

x :

Independent variables

v :

Titration solution volume

b :

Blank volume

m :

Oil sample mass

N :

Normality

V :

Cylinder volume

γ :

Specific heat ratio

\(\sigma\) :

Standard deviation

ϕ :

Respective property

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Acknowledgements

The author would like to pay special thankfulness, warmth, and appreciation to Assoc. Professor M. ARSLAN, Head of Thermodynamic Division, Mechanical Engineering, Yozgat Bozok University, Turkey, for support, technical suggestions, and continuous motivation during the course of this work.

Funding

This study was supported by Scientific Research Projects Unit of Yozgat Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey, for financial support under the contact numbers of projects: 6602b-MÜH/19-274.

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Correspondence to Murat Kadir Yesilyurt.

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Yesilyurt, M.K., Yilbasi, Z. & Aydin, M. The performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics of an unmodified diesel engine running on the ternary blends of pentanol/safflower oil biodiesel/diesel fuel. J Therm Anal Calorim (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09376-6

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Keywords

  • Safflower oil
  • Biodiesel
  • Higher alcohol
  • Performance
  • Emission characteristics
  • Combustion behaviors