Advertisement

Numerical investigation on the performance and anti-freezing design verification of atomization equipment in an icing cloud simulation system

  • Huanyu Deng
  • Shinan ChangEmail author
  • Mengjie SongEmail author
Article

Abstract

Aircraft icing occurs when flying through the cloud containing supercooled water droplets or ice crystals, posing a threat to flight safety. To simulate the natural icing environment, a climatic environmental test facility was designed, in which atomization equipment was utilized to spray micro-sized water droplets. To optimize and provide a reference design for the atomization equipment, a numerical study on its performance and anti-freezing design verification was carried out. The developed model was successfully validated with the maximum experimental ice thickness and its outlined shape on the test rod, with the error of maximum ice thickness at only 2.6%. The maximum deviation and mean deviation are at 1.13 mm and 0.68 mm, respectively. Freeze protection was finally enabled by ensuring the supplement temperature of the water, as well as the air in pipes, higher than 28.85 °C. Results suggested the best position for the test, at 2 m upstream of the nozzle outlet. The water flow temperature at the nozzle outlet was 29.45 °C higher than the freezing point. As a validated and applicable method, this study shows its novelty and practical value in the development of the climatic environmental test facility.

Keywords

Numerical study Aircraft icing Icing cloud simulation system Atomization equipment Freeze protection Ice thickness 

List of symbols

\(A_{\text{d}}\)

The droplet area (m2)

\(\vec{F}\)

Additional force (N)

\(\vec{g}\)

Gravity acceleration of droplet (m s−2)

\(h\)

The convective heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 °C−1)

\(L_{\text{d}}\)

The water latent heat of phase change (J)

\(m_{d}\)

The droplet mass (kg)

\(Nu\)

The ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer across (normal to) the boundary

\(Sh\)

The ratio of the convective mass transfer to the rate of diffusive mass transport

\(T_{\text{a}}\)

The air temperature (°C)

\(T_{\text{d}}\)

The droplet temperature (°C)

\(\vec{u}\)

The airflow velocity (m s−1)

\(\vec{u}_{\text{d}}\)

The droplet velocity (m s−1)

Greek symbols

\(\rho\)

The airflow density (kg m−3)

\(\rho_{\text{d}}\)

The density of the droplet (kg m−3)

\(\rho_{\infty }\)

The vapor density in the bulk gas (kg m−3)

\(\rho_{\text{s}}\)

The vapor density at the droplet surface (kg m−3)

\(\tau_{\text{r}}\)

The droplet relaxation time (s)

\(\beta\)

The convection mass transfer coefficient (m s−1)

Abbreviations

CETF

Climatic environmental test facility

DPM

Discrete phase model

LWC

Liquid water content

MVD

Medium volume diameter

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11372026 & 11672024) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB755803).

References

  1. 1.
    Da Silva DL, Hermes CJ, Melo C. First-principles modeling of frost accumulation on fan-supplied tube-fin evaporators. Appl Therm Eng. 2011;31(14–15):2616–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kalinka F, Roloff K, Tendel J, Hauf T. The In-flight icing warning system ADWICE for European airspace-Current structure, recent improvements and verification results. Meteorol Z. 2017;26(4):441–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Whalen EA, Broeren AP, Bragg MB. Aerodynamics of scaled runback ice accretions. J Aircr. 2008;45(2):591–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pouryoussefi SG, Mirzaei M, Alinejad F, Pouryoussefi SM. Experimental investigation of separation bubble control on an iced airfoil using plasma actuator. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;100:1334–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lian W, Xuan Y. Experimental investigation on a novel aero-engine nose cone anti-icing system. Appl Therm Eng. 2017;121:1011–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Broeren P, Bragg MB, Addy HE. Effect of intercycle ice accretions on airfoil performance. J Airc. 2004;41(1):165–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lynch T, Khodadoust A. Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics. Prog Aerosp Sci. 2001;37(8):669–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cole J, Sand W. Statistical study of aircraft icing accidents. In: 29th Aerospace sciences meeting. Reno: Nevada, USA; 1991. p. 558–69.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bragg MB, Broeren AP, Blumenthal LA. Iced-airfoil aerodynamics. Prog Aerosp Sci. 2005;41(5):323–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Broeren P, Whalen EA, Busch GT, Bragg MB. Aerodynamic simulation of runback ice accretion. J Airct. 2010;47(3):924–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilson GW. Helicopter icing-testing and certification. J Am Helicopter Soc. 1982;27(2):66–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Palacios JL, Han Y, Brouwers EW, Smith EC. Icing environment rotor test stand liquid water content measurement procedures and ice shape correlation. J Am Helicopter Soc. 2012;57(2):29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Irvine T, Oldenburg J, Sheldon D. The new icing cloud simulation system at NASA Lewis’ icing research tunnel. In: 36th AIAA Aerospace sciences meeting and exhibit. Reno: Nevada, USA; 1998. p. 143–64.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang S, Chang H, Wu L, Ding JM. Thompson, theoretical modeling of spray drop deformation and breakup in the multimode breakup regime. At Sprays. 2015;25(10):857–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ahmadi SF, Nath S, Iliff GJ, Srijanto BR, Collier CP, Yue P, Boreyko JB. Passive antifrosting surfaces using microscopic ice patterns. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018;10(38):32874–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bartlett S, Turbine engine icing spray bar design issues. In: ASME 1994 International gas turbine and aeroengine congress and exposition. The Hague, Netherlands; 1994, p. V002T02A008.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Raj LP, Lee JW, Myong RS. Ice accretion and aerodynamic effects on a multi-element airfoil under SLD icing conditions. Aerosp Sci Technol. 2019;85:320–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hu T, Zhu C, Jun-Liang J, Xi-Ming LI. Experimental investigation of spray characteristic of air-blast atomizer. Equip Environ Eng. 2012;9(2):38–41.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yadlin Y, Monnig JT, Malone AM, Paul BP. Icing simulation research supporting the ice-accretion testing of large-scale swept-wing models, NASA/CR-2018-219781; 2018. p. 1–72.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brunnenkant W. Icing Cloud Simulator for Use in Helicopter Engine Induction System Ice Protection Testing. HELI-AIR INC BROUSSARD LA: Los Angeles; 1992. p. 1–53.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    MacLeod J, Jastremski J. Development of a unique icing spray system for a new facility for certification of large turbofan engines. Chicago, USA; 2011, p. 1–9.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bartkus TP, Struk PM, Tsao JC. Comparisons of mixed-phase icing cloud simulations with experiments conducted at the NASA propulsion systems laboratory. In: 9th AIAA atmospheric and space environments conference. Grapevine: Texas, USA; 2017. p. 4243–65.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brouwers JL, Palacios EC, Smith AA, Peterson A. The experimental investigation of a rotor hover icing model with shedding. In: American Helicopter Society 66th Annual Forum. Phoenix, Arizona, USA; 2010. p. 1863–75.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Campbell S, Broeren A, Bragg M, Miller D. Aircraft performance sensitivity to icing cloud conditions. In: 45th AIAA Aerospace sciences meeting and exhibit. Reno: Nevada, USA; 2007. p. 86–103.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bartkus TP, Struk PM, Tsao JC, Van Zante JF. Numerical analysis of mixed-phase icing cloud simulations in the NASA propulsion systems laboratory. In: 8th AIAA atmospheric and space environments conference. Washington, USA; 2016. p. 3739–60.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shu L, Qiu G, Hu Q, Jiang X, McClure G, Liu Y. Numerical and experimental investigation of threshold de-icing heat flux of wind turbine. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn. 2018;174:296–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu QS. Numerical simulation of atomization and heat transfer characteristics of nozzles. North China Electric Power University (Doctoral dissertation); 2017.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cao Y, Huang J, Yin J. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional ice accretion on an aircraft wing. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2016;92:34–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Xiao C, Hu Z, Gui Y, Lin G, Zhang H. Test study on anti-icing effects of hydrophobic coating in icing wind tunnel. J Exp Fluid Mech. 2013;27(2):41–5.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maruda RW, Krolczyk GM, Feldshtein E, Pusavec F, Szydlowski M, Legutko S, Sobczak-Kupiec A. A study on droplets sizes, their distribution and heat exchange for minimum quantity cooling lubrication (MQCL). Int J Mach Tools Manuf. 2016;100:81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pena D, Hoarau Y, Laurendeau É. Development of a three-dimensional icing simulation code in the NSMB flow solver. Int J Eng Syst Model Simul. 2016;8(2):86–98.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Farag A, Huang LJ. CFD analysis and validation of automotive windshield de-icing simulation. SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1079; 2003.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yi X, Guo L, Fu C, Zhang H, Zhou Z, Peng Q. Analysis of water droplets distribution in the test section of an icing wind tunnel. J Exp Fluid Mech. 2016;30(03):2–7.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang SL. Numerical simulation and icing wind tunnel test study on icing distribution on blade of horizontal axis wind turbine. Doctoral dissertation, Northeast Agricultural University, China; 2017 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Simin Z, Guolei W, Qiankun Y, Xiaotong H, Libin S, Ken C. Image processing analyses of the factors influencing the angle of an atomizer spray cone. J Tsinghua Univ (Sci Technol). 2019;59(2):103–10.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fathinia M, Khiadani YM. Al-Abdeli, Experimental and mathematical investigations of spray angle and droplet sizes of a flash evaporation desalination system. Powder Technol. 2019;355:542–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fu Q, Ge F, Wang W, Yang L. Spray characteristics of gel propellants in an open-end swirl injector. Fuel. 2019;254:115555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ravendran R, Endelt B, Christiansen JDC, Jensen P, Theile M, Najjar I. Coupling method for internal nozzle flow and the spray formation for viscous liquids. Int J Comput Methods Exp Meas. 2019;7(2):130–41.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Aeronautic Science and EngineeringBeihang UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Energy and Power Engineering, School of Mechanical EngineeringBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Human and Engineered Environmental StudiesThe University of TokyoKashiwa, ChibaJapan

Personalised recommendations